An Integrated Microfacies and Well Logs-Based Reservoir Characterization of Yamama Formation, Southern Iraq
The Yamama Formation includes important carbonates reservoir that belongs to the Lower Cretaceous sequence in Southern Iraq. This study covers two oil fields (Sindbad and Siba) that are distributed Southeastern Basrah Governorate, South of Iraq. Yamama reservoir units were determined based on the study of cores, well logs, and petrographic examination of thin sections that required a detailed integration of geological data and petrophysical properties. These parameters were integrated in order to divide the Yamama Formation into six reservoir units (YA0, YA1, YA2, YB1, YB2 and YC), located between five cap rock units. The best facies association and petrophysical properties were found in the shoal environment, where the most common porosity types were the primary (interparticle) and secondary (moldic and vugs) . The main diagenetic process that occurred in YA0, YA2, and YB1 is cementation, which led to the filling of pore spaces by cement and subsequently decreased the reservoir quality (porosity and permeability). Based on the results of the final digital computer interpretation and processing (CPI) performed by using the Techlog software, the units YA1 and YB2 have the best reservoir properties. The unit YB2 is characterized by a good effective porosity average, low water saturation, good permeability, and large thickness that distinguish it from other reservoir units.