Iraqi Journal of Science 2023-03-30T06:53:33+00:00 Iraqi Journal of Science Open Journal Systems <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer-reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self-financed by applying fees on the researcher's work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> Study the Association of Uromodulin Gene rs13332878 with Chronic Kidney Disease 2022-06-15T07:00:25+00:00 Ahmed Saad Albayati Suha Abdulkhaliq Al Jowari <p> Uromodulin is the most abundant protein ordinary excreted in urine which could be used as a biomarker to diagnose kidney diseases. However, evidence suggests that it regulates salt transport, protects against urinary tract infection and kidney stones, and has a role in kidney damage and innate immunity. This study aimed to understand the association of uromodulin gene rs13332878 with chronic kidney disease. More than 100 people were selected for the study and the samples collected from the under study subjects were divided into two groups. 70 chosen subjects were under the dialysis with kidney failure, and aged between 18-88 years. The second group included 30 samples from healthy individuals, used as control. One of the ways used to identify the genotype was the tetra-primers amplification refractory mutation system–polymerase chain reaction (ARMS–PCR). Regarding the results of SNP (rs13332878), there were three genotypes: GG, CG and CC. Genotype GG was shown in the size 288bp, genotype CG was shown in the size 288+577bp, whereas genotype CC was shown in the size 577bp. The results of frequency genotypes that appeared for GG, GC and CC were 74.29%, 17.14% and 8.57% respectively in patients. Whereas in the control, the frequency of genotypes was GG 3.33%, GC 16.67% and CC 80%. It was observed that less than 1 odds ratio meant that the genotypes were to be considered as a preventive factor. While more than 1 OR meant that the risk had increased (P-value 0.01). No significant differences for the genotypes GC were found when comparing patients and the control groups (P&gt; 0.01). So, we can conclude that there was an association between SNP (rs13332878) of uromodulin with kidney disease and genotype GG should be considered a risk factor while CC genotype represents a preventive factor.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Gentamicin Upregulates the Gene Expression of hla and nuc in Staphylococcus aureus 2022-06-23T06:48:06+00:00 Rand Thair Abdulateef Alkhafajy Harith Jabbar Fahad Al-Mathkhury <p><strong> </strong>The current study aimed to detect the effect of gentamicin stress on the expression of <em>hla</em> (encodes hemolysin) and <em>nuc</em> (encodes nuclease) genes of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. Fifty-eight isolates identified as <em>S. aureus </em>were isolated locally from different clinical specimens. Disk diffusion method was used to detect the resistance to <em>S. aureus</em>. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin was estimated by broth microdilution method. <em>hla</em> and <em>nuc</em> genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction technique. The biofilm was evaluated using the microtiter plate method in the presence and absence of gentamicin at sub-MIC. The results showed that 18 (31%) and 40 (69%) <em>S. aureus </em>isolates were sensitive and resistant to gentamicin, respectively. All <em>S. aureus</em> isolates succeeded in forming biofilm. However, eight (13.79%), 28 (48.28%) and 22 (37.93%) isolates produced weak, moderate and strong biofilms respectively. In most isolates, gentamicin at sub-MIC decreased biofilm intensity. Due to gentamicin stress, the <em>hla</em> and <em>nuc </em>genes were upregulated in <em>S. aureus</em> biofilm.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Applying Geoaccumulation Index and Enrichment Factor for Assessing Metal Contamination in the Sediments of Euphrates River, Iraq 2022-08-01T13:34:06+00:00 Laith Hemed Kamel Mahmood B. Mahmood Sadiq K. Al-zurfi <p>The current study looked into heavy metal poisoning of the Euphrates river which runs from Al-Kifl to Kufa in Iraq. One of the goals of this research was to determine the pollution levels and the contamination sources. We looked at six heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Mn) characteristics in sediment, taking samples from six sites along the Euphrates every season from March 2020 to January 2021. To assess pollution levels, three indices were chosen: enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I-geo) and contamination factor (CF). According to EF, the Cd and Pb elements recorded considerable enrichment, very high enrichment and extremely high pollution at practically all sites in four seasons, while the remainder of the HMs recorded deficiency to minimal enrichment and moderate enrichment. In all seasons, the geo-accumulation index showed significant contamination with Cr and moderate to low contamination with other metals. Except Cr in spring, which was recorded with moderate contamination, significant contamination and very high contamination, the CF values of all metals in all sites indicated no sediment contamination by these elements.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Global DNA Methylation Levels in Epstein-Barr-Virus-Positive Iraqi Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia 2022-08-04T08:20:02+00:00 Fadhel M. Lafta Rakad M. Kh AL-Jumaily Lubna Muhi Rasoul <p> Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the commonest hematological malignancies affecting children and adults. Recent evidence suggests an involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in ALL pathogenicity. Epigenetic aberration, especially altered DNA methylation marks, is a key event of cancer development. The present study aims to investigate how the ALL epimethylome reacts to viral infection through the assessment of the total 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels in ALL patients, according to EBV infection. The 5mC global DNA methylation levels in 50 diagnosed ALL patients (age mean 26.23 yrs; age range 10-60 yrs) and 25 age-matched healthy controls were assessed using MethylFlash™ Methylated DNA Quantification Kit. Acute primary EBV infection in the studied subjects was detected by measuring Epstein-Barr Virus (EBNA-1) IgG levels using ELISA.</p> <p> The results showed a significant (P˂0.001) decrease in 5mC levels in ALL-EBV positive cases as compared to those who were negative for EBV infection (0.234±0.117 vs. 0.441±0.153, respectively). The reduction in the average 5mC level seemed to be negatively correlated with EBV viral load (r = -0.599, p= 0.001). Additionally, 5mC levels were able to distinguish between ALL main subtypes (B-ALL and T-ALL; derived from B or T lymphocytes), where T-ALL cases showed significantly (P=0.005) higher 5mC levels than those of B-ALL cases (0.587±0.070 vs. 0.180±0.092, respectively). Also significantly (P=0.04) lower 5mC levels were detected in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph<sup>+</sup>) ALL cases than in those who were negative to this genetic abnormality (Ph<sup>- </sup>-ALL) (0.13±0.021 vs. 0.179±0.093, respectively). Overall, the findings of the present study suggest an involvement of EBV infection in ALL pathogenicity, with the potential of utilizing the differences in global DNA methylation levels in ALL patients' risk stratification. </p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Genetic Diversity of Trichoderma and Hypocrea lixii Iraqi Strains by Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique 2022-12-30T14:04:55+00:00 Israa Malallah Handel <p> As the diversity and characteristics of <em>Trichoderma</em> species are difficult to determine using morphological methods, henceforth molecular tools are crucial. This study utilized random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to investigate the genetic diversity of <em>Trichoderma</em> with sexual phase <em>Hypocrea</em> and to identify similarities and differences in the phylogenetic tree. Nine Iraqi <em>Trichoderma</em> strains (four strains of <em>T. atroviride</em>, one strain of<em> Hypocrea</em> <em>lixii</em>, two strains of <em>T. gamsii</em> and two strains of <em>T</em>. <em>longibriantium</em>) were examined in this research. The genomic DNA of each species was extracted and amplified with each of the five primers. 197 bands were obtained by using five oligodeoxynucleotide primers of which 98.47% were polymorphic and about 1.52% were monomorphic. When primers OPA4, OPA8, and OPA10 were used, the genetic variability was about 100%. Whereas, after using primers OPA7 and OPA5, the obtained genetic variability was 95.7% and 92.6% respectively. Gel images of the RAPD were processed with photo-cap program which detected the bands of isolates based on the ladder. The detected bands were then clustered based on the Jaccard method in Past software that showed <em>T. atroviride, T. gamsii, Hypocrea lixii, and T. longibrachiatum</em> isolates were grouped as clades and lineages. Although all strains belonged to the same species and group in one clade, they differed in size and number of bands. The Jaccard cluster analysis showed that the three isolates of <em>T. atroviride </em>were closely related to each other, while the four isolates of <em>T. atroviride </em>in one cluster were same as <em>Hypocrea</em> lixii, the isolates of <em>T. gamsii</em> and two strains of <em>T. longibrachiatum</em> formed one cluster. Thus, the high reliability of RAPD markers could be applied to identify <em>Trichoderma</em> species and create genetic maps instead of other DNA-based methods which are not only costly but time-consuming too.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Mixed Spinel Co0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 Ferrite Nanoparticles As a Magnetic Photocatalyst: Synthesis and Dye Degradation 2022-08-04T06:45:55+00:00 We'am Sami <p> In this paper, mixed spinel Co<sub>0.4</sub>Zn<sub>0.6</sub>Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> ferrite was synthesized by microwave-assisted combustion method. Photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized sample was investigated against methylene blue dye at room temperature at different exposure times (60-360 min.) under visible light. Phase impurity and surface morphology which are investigated with XRD analysis and field emission- scanning electron microscopy, indicate that a cubic spinel unit cell structure with a crystilite size and lattice constant are 22.5048nm and 8.37Å, respectively. The saturation magnetization exhibited directly from the hysteresis loop is (70.20emu/g). Optical properties for the investigated ferrites exhibited photo absorption from UV to visible region with an energy gap of (1.6 eV). Mainly two broad metal-oxygen bands for spinel Co<sub>0.4</sub>Zn<sub>0.6</sub>Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> ferrite photocatalyst are seen in FT-IR spectra. The degradation ratio of dye increased as exposure time was increased .</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science CdO: SnO2 Composite UV-Assisted Room Temperature Ozone Sensor 2022-07-02T21:02:47+00:00 Mohammed O. Salman Mohammed A. Kadhim Abed A. Khalefa <p> Cadmium-tin oxide (CSO) thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis method at different substrate temperatures (<em>T<sub>s</sub></em>). The results showed a significant effect of <em>T<sub>s</sub></em> on the surface morphology and the electrical properties, which in turn has a significant effect on sensor gas sensitivity. The sample prepared at 400 °C appeared in the form of a donut shape, which has the best ozone sensitivity. No ozone sensitivity appeared in-dark, while showed good sensitivity when illuminated with UV at room temperature (RT). The study showed that the photon exposure method can substitute for the conventional method of sensors heating.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Beam Shaping Technique for 5-mm Fiber-coupled Laser Diode Bars with Lens Group 2022-06-24T22:11:25+00:00 Hind J Jawad <p>In the last few years, fiber-coupled diode lasers have shown massive applications in many fields of communication and scientific research. Particularly, the pumping of solid-state lasers is a key application for more powerful diode lasers enabling good solutions in various laser micro methods like metal cutting, sintering, structuring as well as drilling. In this work, a simple beam shaping method is demonstrated for coupling a high-power semiconductor laser diode into multi-mode fiber optic using optical lenses. The optical lenses as beam transformation components are utilized to reshape the asymmetrical irradiation of the diode laser bar and to circularize the laser beam. Using this simple method, compact, high-output-power, and high-brightness fiber-coupled laser diode systems are achieved. The obtained results show that the entire optical coupling efficiency of the system is more than 65%.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science The effect of background argon gas pressure on parameters of plasma produced by Dc- glow discharge 2022-08-19T22:32:13+00:00 Mohammed H. Jawad Mohammed R. Abdulameer <p> <strong> </strong>Non-thermal plasmas have become popular as plasma technology has advanced in various fields, including waste management, aerospace technology, and medicinal applications. They can be used to replace combustion fuels in stationary hall motors and need little effort to keep running for longer periods of time. To improve overall system performance, non-reactive gases such as )Xe, Ar, and Kr) are utilized in pure or mixed form to generate plasma. Since DC glow discharge is a fundamental topic of importance, these gases have been researched. The paper concentrates on 2-D modeling and simulation. DC glow-discharge tubes are utilized with argon gas to create plasma and learn about its properties. The magnitude of the electron density, increases with rising pressure, whilst the rest of the parameters gradually decrease with increasing pressure</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Calculating Parameters for Se and Tin Plasmas Produced by Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser 2022-08-04T07:56:10+00:00 Zahraa A. Saeed Kadhim A. Aadim <p> In this study, the plasma formed by the preparation of Se and Tin (Sn) using a Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm in air, which was then studied using the technique of optical emission spectrum, was presented (OES).The laser-induced plasma parameters such an electron temperature (Te) were identified using two-ratio methods, using Stark broadening methods to determine the density of electrons (n<sub>e</sub>). According to the findings, there is a correlation between the amount of laser energy that is applied and the increase in the emission intensity of the spectral lines. In the case of Se plasma, an increase in laser energy causes a rise in the temperature of the electrons. While increasing the temperature of the electrons by increasing the amount of laser energy, the temperature of the Sn plasma gradually lowers. By increasing the laser energy, the electron density of both selenium (Se) and tin (Sn) can be increased. In addition, the parameters of the plasma were discovered. Such parameters as the Debye length (λ<sub>D</sub>), plasma frequency (F<sub>p</sub>), and Debye Number (N<sub>D</sub>).</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Some Meldrum's Acid Derivatives as Lubricant Additives 2022-03-03T06:46:32+00:00 Hadeel A.K Hussien Zainab A. K. Al-Messri <p>Aminomethylene Meldrum’s acid derivatives were synthesized by a three-component, one-pot reaction of Meldrum's acid with triethyl orthoformate and different aromatic amines. The prepared compounds were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) and evaluated as anti-corrosion and anti-rust additives by blending with base lubricating oil, according to the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM-D130 and ASTM-D665). The blends of the synthesized compounds with the base lubricating oil showed better anti-rust and anti-corrosion effects than the base oil Blank).</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Separation and Micro Determination of Zinc(II) and Cadmium(II) in Food Samples Using Cloud Point Extraction method 2022-07-15T21:10:41+00:00 Fatimah Abd Wannas Ebaa Adnan Azooz Rana Kadhim Ridha Shawket Kadhim Jawad <p> The cloud point extraction technique has become increasingly popular in recent years for trace metal separation and preconcentration. When heated to a specific temperature, cloud point extraction utilizes the property of nonionic surfactants in aqueous solutions to generate micelles and become turbid (so-called cloud point temperature). For analytical chemists, developing a simple and selective technology for the separation and determination of metals and medicinal drugs is a critical concern. Therefore, a sensitive, accurate, and green cloud point extraction (CPE) procedure was developed for the micro-determination of metal cations like zinc (II) and cadmium (II) in food samples. Triton X–114 and 1-(4-(Phenyldiazenyl) phenyl) azo naphthalene-2-ol (Sudan III) were used as extractants. Sudan III forms an ion-pair association complex with metal ions when the pH is 9. In the presence of 5 ppm zinc (II) or 4 ppm cadmium (II) in an aqueous solution, the maximum extraction efficiency should be achieved. In order to create Cloud Point Temperature (CPT) quantitatively, the extraction applications in this approach required heating at 85°C for 20 minutes. In this work, the impacts of different surfactants, pH, stoichiometry, and various organic reagents on interferences as well as spectrophotometric determination were explored. The linearity ranges of zinc (II) and cadmium (II) were 0.25-700 and 0.25-400 ppm, respectively. The results show low detection limits of 0.035 and 0.042 ppm for zinc (II) and cadmium (II), respectively. Also, the quantification limits for zinc (II) and cadmium (II) are 0.116 and 0.140 ppm, respectively.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Synthesis and Characterization of New Bis-Schiff Bases Linked to Various Imide Cycles 2022-11-17T18:10:17+00:00 Tabarek Mohammed Yassen Ahlam Marouf AL-Azzawi <p> This research includes the synthesis of new bis-Schiff bases linked to different imide cycles. There were some steps involved in the synthesis of the novel Schiff bases with succinimide, phthalimide, tetrachlorophthalimide, and tetrabromophthalimide cycles. The first step involved the preparation of 4,4`-bis[(4-aminophenyl) methyl benzylidene]tolidine (<strong>1</strong>) <em>via</em> the condensation reaction of 3,3'-dimethyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine with 4-amino acetophenone. In the second step, compound <strong>1</strong> reacted with various cyclic anhydrides, affording bis-amic acid Schiff bases <strong>2</strong>-<strong>5</strong>. In the third step, the products 2-5 were dehydrated using the fusion method to produce the target bis-imidyl Schiff bases <strong>6</strong>-<strong>9</strong>. This work also involved the synthesis of bis-imidyl Schiff base <strong>10</strong> directly by fusion of compound <strong>1</strong> with 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. The prepared compounds were characterized depending on their FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, and <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectra. The newly synthesized target compounds are expected to be very active biologically since their molecules are essential components of two active groups (imine and imide).</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Constructing a Digital Certificate Authentication System for Classified Documents 2022-07-28T20:32:29+00:00 Saif Ahmed Shaker Ayad Ghazi Nasir Faez Hassan Ali <p> In this paper, we introduce a new digital authentication certification system to keep the classified documents' information safe. The proposed system is a steganography system divided into two subsystems, the first subsystem is responsible for embedding the information about the person, and it works in the main foundation that issues the documents, while the second subsystem is found in the beneficiary directorates to extract the true information of the person.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Facial Expression Recognition Based on Deep Learning: An Overview 2022-06-24T15:08:51+00:00 Salar Jamal Abdulhameed Al-Atroshi Abbas M. Ali <p> Recognizing facial expressions and emotions is a basic skill that is learned at an early age and it is important for human social interaction. Facial expressions are one of the most powerful natural and immediate means that humans use to express their feelings and intentions. Therefore, automatic emotion recognition based on facial expressions become an interesting area in research, which had been introduced and applied in many areas such as security, safety health, and human machine interface (HMI). Facial expression recognition transition from controlled environmental conditions and their improvement and succession of recent deep learning approaches from different areas made facial expression representation mostly based on using a deep neural network that is generally divided into two critical issues. These are a variation of expression and overfitting. Expression variations such as identity bias, head pose, illumination, and overfitting formed as a result of a lack of training data. This paper firstly discussed the general background and terminology utilized in facial expression recognition in field of computer vision and image processing. Secondly, we discussed general pipeline of deep learning. After that, for facial expression recognition to classify emotion there should be datasets in order to compare the image with the datasets for classifying the emotion. Besides that we summarized, discussed, and compared illustrated various recent approaches of researchers that have used deep techniques as a base for facial expression recognition, then we briefly presented and highlighted the classification of the deep feature. Finally, we summarized the most critical challenges and issues that are widely present for overcoming, improving, and designing an efficient deep facial expression recognition system.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science A Tri-Gene Ontology Migration Operator for Improving the Performance of Meta-heuristics in Complex Detection Problems 2022-06-15T08:15:20+00:00 Isra H. Abdulateef Dhia A. Jumaa Alzubaydi Bara'a Ali Attea <p> Detecting protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is a challenging problem in computational biology. To uncover a PPI network into a complex structure, different meta-heuristic algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, many of such methods, including evolutionary algorithms (EAs), are based solely on the topological information of the network rather than on biological information. Despite the effectiveness of EAs over heuristic methods, more inherent biological properties of proteins are rarely investigated and exploited in these approaches. In this paper, we proposed an EA with a new mutation operator for complex detection problems. The proposed mutation operator is formulated under four expressions depending on the type of gene sub-ontology. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed evolutionary based complex detection algorithm, the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (yeast) PPI network is used in the evaluation. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm achieves more accurate complex structures than the counterpart heuristic algorithms and the canonical evolutionary algorithm based on the topological-aware mutation operator.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Detection and Mitigation of Cache Pollution Attack Using Popularity Variation in Information Centric Networking Based on SDN 2022-06-13T08:35:05+00:00 Marwa Kareem Sameer Mustafa Ismael Salman <p> Information centric networking (ICN) is the next generation of internet architecture with its ability to provide in-network caching that make users retrieve their data efficiently regardless of their location. In ICN, security is applied to data itself rather than communication channels or devices. In-network caches are vulnerable to many types of attacks, such as cache poisoning attacks, cache privacy attacks, and cache pollution attacks (CPA). An attacker floods non-popular content to the network and makes the caches evict popular ones. As a result, the cache hit ratio for legitimate users will suffer from a performance degradation and an increase in the content’s retrieval latency. In this paper, a popularity variation mechanism in a CCN-SDN environment (PV-CSDN) is proposed to detect and mitigate CPA. PV-CSDN is based on observing the behavior of legitimate users to learn the normal traffic pattern and record the required threshold values. Two key parameters are used to achieve the threshold values: the popularity of the contents and the average rate of repeated requests for each interface in the router. The current traffic pattern will be compared with the predefined thresholds and if any variation in the traffic is occurred the attack is detected. The algorithm was able to detect the attack, and as a mitigation process, the controller will block the malicious interface to prevent any further degradation in the performance. The experiments show that PV-CSD detects and prevents the attack effectively.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science A Developed Compression Scheme to Optimize Data Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks 2022-07-27T17:43:58+00:00 Zahraa Mazin Saif Al- Alak <p> Improving performance is an important issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). WSN has many limitations including network performance. The research question is how to reduce the amount of data transmitted to improve network performance? </p> <p> The work will include one of the dictionary compression methods which is Lempel Ziv Welch(LZW). One problem with the dictionary method is that the token size is fixed. The LZW dictionary method is not very useful with little data, because it loses many bytes when storing small-sized tokens.</p> <p> From the results obtained, the best compression ratios were in the proposed algorithm. The proposed work suggests using a dynamic size token where the tokens are classified according to their size(one byte, two bytes, or three bytes). The main idea of the proposed work is based on increasing the frequency of data to increase the compression ratio. To increase the frequency of data, the work suggests keeping the amount of incremental reading data instead of keeping the whole real data. Because the climate reading data changes very slowly, the amount of change would be frequent.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Robust Password Encryption Technique with an Extra Security Layer 2022-06-28T21:35:12+00:00 Qusay Zuhair Abdulla Mustafa Dhiaa Al-Hassani <p> People are comfortable with e-banking services, but they are exposed to a great deal of danger these days due to fraudulent acts such as password hacking and personal information theft. Everything individuals do online relies heavily on passwords. Using a password protects one's identity online, in forums, and through email. Online transactions are vulnerable to identity theft if they do not have a secure password. Internet users with critical statements are vulnerable to various assaults, including the theft and exploitation of user IDs and passwords. This paper introduces novel password encryption by fingerprint and a random number to make each password unique and robust against attacks, with a magnificent time elapsed of under 40 milliseconds. This paper uses global password datasets with different stages of password complexity. This method protects the bank’s clients' password accounts inside the bank database.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Wallet Key Generation for a Generic Blockchain based on Speech 2022-06-09T08:54:15+00:00 Asmaa Rashid Asia Ali, Nidaa Fleih <p> As a new technology, blockchain provides the necessary capabilities to assure data integrity and data security through encryption. Mostly, all existing algorithms that provide security rely on the process of discovering a suitable key. Hence, key generation is considered the core of powerful encryption. This paper uses Zernike moment and Mersenne prime numbers to generate strong prime numbers by extracting the features from biometrics (speech). This proposed system sends these unique and strong prime numbers to the RSA algorithm to generate the keys. These keys represent a public address and a private key in a cryptocurrency wallet that is used to encrypt transactions. The benefit of this work is that it provides a high degree of protection to secure personal user transactions by creating secure keys that can be used for insecure channels.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science The Daily Pattern at 500 hPa Geopotential Heights and Its Association with Heavy Rainfall over Iraq 2022-06-28T07:39:39+00:00 Mohammed Abdul Raheem Jabbar Ahmad S. Hassan <p> Rainfall in the mid-latitudes is highly related to the synoptic pattern at the upper-levels, this study focuses on the relationship between 500 hPa geopotential height patterns and the cyclone at the surface. Synoptic studies that there is a correlation between cyclone at the surface and deepening of the trough at the upper in the mid-latitudes. The results show that when the upper trough is situated over the eastern Mediterranean, this will enhance the advection of warm and moist air from the tropical region, which will cause baroclinic instability over Iraq, leading to heavy precipitation and torrents in some situations.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Determination of the Mathematical Model for Plasma Electronic Coefficients of the Earth's Ionosphere 2022-07-27T19:42:16+00:00 Aseel A. Temur Ala F. Ahmed Rafid A. Ali <p>In this research, electron coefficients such as total collision frequency (colt/N), total ionization frequency (viz/N), and Power (P/N) for different gases such as (Ar, He, N2 and O2 (in Earth’s ionosphere have been calculated by applying the Boltzmann equation utilizing BOLSIG +, and it has been discovered that there is a significant impact of reducing the electric field (E/N) on electronic coefficients under which (E/N) increases. In addition, influence of (E/N) on electronic coefficients was studied. Reducing the electric field was chosen in the restricted range (1-100) Td, and the electronic coefficients for gases in the limited range (50-2000) km of the Earth's ionosphere. A positive correlation has been explained between all the plasma electronic coefficients and (E/N) for the four gases. It was found that He gas has higher electronic coefficients than other gases in the Earth's ionosphere because they have lower electron binding energy.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Reliability of Stress - Strength and Its Estimation of Exponentiated Q-Exponential Distribution 2022-06-04T18:59:11+00:00 Mohammed. S. Jalal Feras Sh. M. Batah <p> In this paper, we study a single stress-strength reliability system , where Ƹ and ƴ are independently Exponentiated q-Exponential distribution. There are a few traditional estimating approaches that are derived, namely maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and the Bayes (BE) estimators of R. A wide mainframe simulation is used to compare the performance of the proposed estimators using MATLAB program. A simulation study show that the Bayesian estimator is the best estimator than other estimation method under consideration using two criteria such as the “mean squares error (MSE)” and “mean absolutely error (MAPE)”.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Solvability for Optimal Classical Continuous Control Problem Controlling by Quaternary Hyperbolic Boundary Value Problem 2022-06-18T13:13:42+00:00 Mayeada Hassan Jamil A. Ali Al-Hawasy <p><strong> </strong> This work is concerned with studying the solvability for optimal classical continuous control quaternary vector problem that controls by quaternary linear hyperbolic boundary value problem. The existence of the unique quaternary state vector solution for the quaternary linear hyperbolic boundary value problem is studied and demonstrated by employing the method of Galerkin, where the classical continuous control quaternary vector is Known. Also, the existence theorem of an optimal classical continuous control quaternary vector related to the quaternary linear hyperbolic boundary value problem is demonstrated. The existence of a unique solution to the adjoint quaternary linear hyperbolic boundary value problem associated with the quaternary linear hyperbolic boundary value problem is formulated and studied. The directional derivative for the cost functional is derived. Finally, the necessary optimality theorem for the optimal classical continuous control quaternary vector is proved. </p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Solving Linear and Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations Using Bees Algorithm 2022-06-25T18:54:44+00:00 Azzam S.Y. Aladool Abdulrazzaq T. Abed <p>A numerical algorithm for solving linear and non-linear fractional differential equations is proposed based on the Bees algorithm and Chebyshev polynomials. The proposed algorithm was applied to a set of numerical examples. Faster results are obtained compared to the wavelet methods<strong>.</strong></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Numerical Study of Compressible and Weak Compressible Flows in Channel Based on Artificial Compressibility Method and Fully Artificial Compressibility Method 2022-07-07T10:03:11+00:00 Fatima A. Mohammed Alaa H. Al-Muslimawi <p> In this article, a numerical study of compressible and weak compressible Newtonian flows is achieved for a time marching, Galerkin algorithm. A comparison between two numerical techniques for such flows, namely the artificial compressibility method (AC–method) and the fully artificial compressibility method (FAC–method) is performed. In the first artificial compressibility parameter ( is added to the continuity equation, while this parameter is added to both continuity and momentum equations in the second technique. This strategy is implemented to treat the governing equations of Newtonian flow in cylindrical coordinates (axisymmetric). Particularly, this study concerns with the effect of the artificial compressibility parameters on the convergence level of solutions components. To confirm the analysis of these approaches, Poiseuille flow along a circular channel under an isothermal state is used as a simple test problem. The results show that when the AC-method is used there is a significant reduction in the level of time convergence of pressure and axial velocity compared to that with FAC-method. Here, for compressible flow the Tail model of state is employed to relate the pressure to density. In this context, the effect of Tail parameters and Reynolds number on the time convergence of solution components is also investigated in the present study. The results indicate a significant reduction in the time-stepping convergence as increasing in the {B,m}-value. In contrast, more difficulties are faced in the convergence when the level of the Reynolds number is increasing.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Influence of MHD and Porous Media on Peristaltic Transport for Nanofluids in An Asymmetric Channel 2022-07-08T04:45:34+00:00 Qabas K. Jawad Ahmed. M. Abdulhadi <p> The aim of this paper is to discuss the influence of nanoparticles and porous media, and magnetic field on the peristaltic flow transport of a couple stress fluid in an asymmetric channel with different wave forms of non-Newtonian fluid. Initially, mathematical modeling of the two dimensions and two directional flows of a couple stress fluid with a nanofluid is first given and then simplified beneath hypothesis of the long wave length and the low Reynolds number approximation. After making these approximations, we will obtain associated nonlinear differential equations. Then, the exact solutions of the temperature distribution, nanoparticle concentration, velocity, stream function, and pressure gradient will be calculated. Finally, the results of drawings for many physical parameters that are of importance for examining the behavior of fluid flow quantities are discussed.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Modified Iterative Method for Solving Sine - Gordon Equations 2022-06-28T16:23:59+00:00 Samaher M. Yassein <p><strong> </strong>The basic goal of this research is to utilize an analytical method which is called the Modified Iterative Method in order to gain an approximate analytic solution to the Sine-Gordon equation. The suggested method is the amalgamation of the iterative method and a well-known technique, namely the Adomian decomposition method. A method minimizes the computational size, averts round-off errors, transformation and linearization, or takes some restrictive assumptions. Several examples are chosen to show the importance and effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, a modified iterative method gives faster and easier solutions than other methods. These solutions are accurate and in agreement with the series of solutions that are provided by analytical results. To evaluate the outcomes in the modified iterative process, we have used the Matlab symbolic manipulator.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Persistence and bifurcation analysis among four species interactions with the influence of competition, predation and harvesting 2022-07-17T21:24:06+00:00 Shireen Rasool Jawad Marwa Al Nuaimi <p> In this paper, the interplay among four population species is offered. The system consists of two competitive prey, predator and super predators. The application of the hypothesis of the Sotomayor theorem for local bifurcation around every equilibrium point is adopted. It is detected that the transcritical bifurcation could occur near most of the system's equilibrium points, while saddle-node and pitchfork bifurcation can not be accrued at any of them. Further, the conditions that guarantee the accruing Hopf bifurcation are carried out. Finally, some numerical analysis is illustrated to confirm the analytical results.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Method Development of Nested Allele-Specific Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (NASM-PCR) for the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)-related Gene Polymorphisms 2021-12-09T17:05:32+00:00 Rasmaizatul Akma Rosdi Nurfadhlina Musa Zalina Zahari Mohd Khairi Zahri Mulham Alfatama Boon Yin Khoo <p>Polymorphisms in the genes of G-protein subunit beta 3 (<em>GNB3</em>); rs5443, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (<em>TPH1</em>); rs211105 and rs4537731, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (<em>TPH2</em>); rs4570625 and sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 (<em>SCN5A</em>); rs1805124, have known to cause the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract that are implicated to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) predisposition. Upfront genetic polymorphism genotyping in IBS-related gene polymorphisms will help to intervene and guide the decision-making in the management of IBS patients. This study aimed to develop a genotyping method to detect the respective polymorphisms using nested allele-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NASM-PCR). A combination of nested and allele-specific multiplex PCR method was developed to determine the five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mentioned. Annealing temperature, annealing and extension times, and the concentrations of MgCl<sub>2</sub>, primers, and DNA samples were optimized in the PCR. Sanger sequencing was performed to validate the genotyping results. NASM-PCR for IBS-related gene polymorphisms were successfully developed. DNA bands which correspond to the genes and SNPs have shown 100% homologous with the gene database. The developed method of NASM-PCR was reproducible and specific to be used for determining the respective polymorphisms of IBS. Notably, the described method can easily be integrated into other laboratories for population study or clinical use.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Evaluation of Plasma-microRNA320 level among Colorectal Cancer Iraqi Patients 2022-03-08T10:21:18+00:00 Hiba Abdulameer Mohammed Nuha Joseph Kandala <p>Colorectal cancer (CRC) Patients showed different expression patterns of miRNAs which are involved in carcinogenesis in comparison to healthy controls individuals, miRNAs are involved in tumor progression and development of metastases. We investigate the expression profile of microRNA 320 and <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">to</span> quantify the expression level abundance among colorectal cancer patients in comparison to the healthy control group. <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">The</span> A total number of 60 plasma samples was collected from CRC patients along with 40 plasma samples from healthy controls and subjected to relative quantification using qPCR assay with a specified set of primers designed using stem-loop strategy. The resulting folding level revealed 2 distinguished patterns of expression; 31 samples (51.66%) were higher than the folding mean level of control (Up-regulation) and 29 samples (48.33%) were below the folding mean level (Down-regulation). The relation of folding level among healthy controls and patient groups showed a P value of 0.0001 using the Pearson Chi-square test. The Area under curve (AUC) was determined as 0.730 with a P-value of 0.0001 with a 95% confidence interval, the lower bound was 0.632 and the upper bound was 0.827.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science The Effectiveness of using the Biofilter made from Bidara (Sidr) to reduce the negative effects of Mice Cigarette Smoke 2022-06-10T09:42:55+00:00 Agus Mulyono <p> This study aims to determine the effect of exposure to cigarette smoke with a biofilter of bidara leaf powder on the histology of the liver, lungs and blood viscosity of mice. This test was carried out for 28 days by giving cigarette smoke with a biofilter of bidara leaf powder and observing the histology of the liver, lungs and blood viscosity. The results showed that exposure to cigarette smoke with a biofilter of bidara leaf powder was very effective in reducing damage to the liver and lungs of mice, and also very effective in reducing blood viscosity as in normal mice blood viscosity. The use of Bidara leaf powder biofilter can affect the histology of the liver, lungs and blood viscosity in mice. Bidara leaf powder biofilter can minimize the negative impact of cigarette smoke.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Studying some cytotoxic and cytogenetic potentials of Dandelion methanolic extract on MCF-7 cancer cell line: an in vitro study 2022-06-28T16:13:44+00:00 Ruqaya M. Al-Ezzy Ahmed F. Alshanon Hadeel M. Khalaf <p> This study aimed to evaluate the anticancer activity and cell division arresting by dandelion methanolic extract on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cancer cell line. For achieving this goal, cytotoxicity assay (MTT assay), multipara system assay: High Content Screening (HCS) which include (viable cell count VCC; membrane permeability MP; cellular mitochondrial permeability CMP; nuclear intensity NI and cytochrome C releasing ), reactive oxygen species detection and cell cycle phases division were tested. The results of this study showed the ability of the plant to reduce cancer cell viability in a dose-dependant manner within IC50 (141.0) in comparison to IC50 <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">of </span>(334.4) on the human normal cell line (WRL-68). Furthermore, the results of HCS demonstrated the ability of plants to enhance apoptosis of cancer cells and increase the production of ROS from cancer cells treated with plant extract and doxorubicin drug in comparison with negative control (50.07±2.2, 53.03±2.6 <em>vs.</em> 44.77±1.4) respectively. Also, the results of the cell cycle for control, 400 µg\ml of dandelion extract and doxorubicin drug showed the ability to arrest the division of cancer cells at G1 phase by decreasing its transmission to S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle (62%, 59% and 62.46% at G1) (27.46%,26.50% and 24.66% at S Phase) (16.50%, 20.50% and 18.46% at G2\M) respectively. All these effects are attributed to the active compounds (secondary metabolites) such as terpenes, polyphenols, and different minerals that possess anticancer activity against different cell lines like MCF7.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Biosynthesis of Nio Nanoparticles Using Prodigiosin Pigment and its Evaluate of Antibacterial Activity Against Biofilm Producing MDR- Pseudomonas Aeruginosa 2022-11-22T08:30:46+00:00 L. A. Yaaqoob R. W. Younis Z. K. Kamona M. F. Altaee R. M. Abed <p> The entire investigation's focus was on the production of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs), using prodigiosin pigments produced by <em>Serratia marcescens</em> as a stabilizing and reducing agent. Nickel oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using nickel sulfate NiSO<sub>4</sub> (10mg) with a concentration of prodigiosin (10g/100ml). Biosynthesized NiO nanoparticles have been characterized by using many techniques, such as (UV-Vis, AFM, XRD, FTIR, and FE-SEM). The AFM analysis revealed that NiONPs have an average diameter size of (41.77 mm), and the FE-SEM Image displays Spherical. Additionally, the effect of NiONPs with different concentrations on the bacteria <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> was measured and the inhibition zone reached to (29 mm). Biosynthesis of NiONPs using prodigiosin was shown to have promising activity as an antibacterial against the biofilm-producing <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Image Compression Techniques on-Board Small Satellites 2022-06-20T07:24:53+00:00 Halah Saadoon Shihab <p> Raw satellite images are considered high in resolution, especially multispectral images captured by remote sensing satellites. Hence, choosing the suitable compression technique for such images should be carefully considered, especially on-board small satellites, due to the limited resources. This paper presents an overview and classification of the major and state-of-the-art compression techniques utilized in most space missions launched during the last few decades, such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)-based compression techniques. The pros and cons of the onboard compression methods are presented, giving their specifications and showing the differences among them to provide unified information about these methods for researchers and satellite imaging payload designers. Hence, some of these techniques are implemented, and comparisons are presented in the current work as examples to simulate an image compression system on board a small satellite using the MATLAB software package. This was achieved by employing three LANDSAT8, band6 satellite images. A wavelet selection was also considered for the DWT-based compression method, which gave the best results among the other methods through acquiring high values of compression ratio (CR) while maintaining the important scientific information of the image when reconstructed at the ground station.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Spatiotemporal Drought Monitoring Using Remote Sensing Technique in Babel-Iraq 2022-08-02T22:06:55+00:00 Hiba Akram Atiyah Sajaa M. Khazael Assel Qaddoori Makhool <p> Drought is one of the most natural hazards that may harm human life and property under different weather and environmental conditions. This study used remote sensing data to monitor agricultural and meteorological drought in Babel Governorate. Drought maps were drawn using Landsat 8 images based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for 2015, 2018, and 2021. The meteorological drought was assessed using a standardized precipitation index (SPI 12) for the same years. The results showed that the SPI-12 indicated near-normal drought types in 2015 and 2018, whereas SPI values showed a lower value in 2021. Two drought categories were identified which were moderate drought and severe drought. The NDVI results showed that the vegetation area decreased in 2021 by 9 % in comparison to 2015. This result could help the government planners to develop and manage the drought impacts.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science The Satellite Images Matching and Mosaic Techniques 2022-07-18T21:28:29+00:00 Abeer N. Abdul-Hammed Alaa S. Mahdi <p> The Matching and Mosaic of the satellite imagery play an essential role in many remote sensing and image processing projects. These techniques must be required in a particular step in the project, such as remotely change detection applications and the study of large regions of interest. The matching and mosaic methods depend on many image parameters such as pixel values in the two or more images, projection system associated with the header files, and spatial resolutions, where many of these methods construct the matching and mosaic manually. In this research, georeference techniques were used to overcome the image matching task in semi automotive method. The decision about the quality of the technique can be considered if the error value is less than half a pixel. The projection-based method was used to ensure the mosaic process. The test images are satellite imagery with medium spatial resolutions; these images were processed to ensure the results. In matching techniques, the different sensor images (different in resolutions) were investigated using image resize and sampling. The results were obtained using many remote sensing packages and written programs in Matlab environmental.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Image Processing Approaches as a Diagnostic Parameter to Determine Pollution by Using Satellite Imagery, Northern Iraq 2022-08-16T09:28:15+00:00 Faten Azeez Mustafa Almas Ahmad Khaleel Turkan Ahmad Khaleel <p> This work highlights the estimation of the Al-Khoser River water case that disposes of its waste directly into the Tigris River within Mosul city. Furthermore, the work studies the effects of environmental and climate change and the impact of pollution resulting from waste thrown into the Al-Khoser River over the years. Al-Khoser River is located in the Northern Mesopotamia of Mosul city. This study aims to detect the polluted water area and the polluted surrounding area. Temporal remote sensing data of different Landsat generations were considered in this work, specifically Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus of 2000 and Operational Land Imager of 2015. The study aims to measure the amount of pollution in the study area over 15 years using a supervised classification approach and other tools in ERDAS Imagine Software version 2014. Supervised classification is favored for remote sensing data processing because it contains different digital image processing methods. It is noticed by applying to preprocess and post-processing techniques adopted in the polluted section of Al-Khoser River and monitoring the changes in the objects around it. Hence, the river’s water has been classified into clear water and contaminated water, which shows the impact of pollution over the years. The analysis detected a polluted area in the river that enlarged over the years 2000 to 2015 from 4.139 km² to 21.45 km², respectively. The study showed the differences in the size of objects around the river. The study concludes that daily wastes produced by the residential areas through which Al-Khoser and Tigris rivers pass would cause the polluted sections of the river to increase.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Treatment Missing Data of Daily and Monthly Air Temperature in Iraq by Using Mean Method 2022-08-14T17:27:31+00:00 Ali Hamid Yassen Asraa Khtan Abdul Kareem <p>Frequent data in weather records is essential for forecasting, numerical model development, and research, but data recording interruptions may occur for various reasons. So, this study aims to find a way to treat these missing data and know their accuracy by comparing them with the original data values. The mean method was used to treat daily and monthly missing temperature data. The results show that treating the monthly temperature data for the stations (Baghdad, Hilla, Basra, Nasiriya, and Samawa) in Iraq for all periods (1980-2020), the percentage for matching between the original and the treating values did not exceed (80%). So, the period was divided into four periods. It was noted that most of the congruence values increased, reached in summer (70%-100%), and decreased somewhat in winter. While the daily treatment using the mean method for the stations Baghdad and Basra (2010-2020), it turns out that most of the congruence values in the summer ranged (70%-100%), but in winter, the congruence is often decreased. Therefore, this method gives high accuracy when treating monthly and daily temperatures in summer and less in winter.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Assessing the Groundwater Recharge with Water Balance in Ameriat Al-Falluja City, Al-Anbar Governorate, Western Iraq 2022-06-20T09:46:06+00:00 Marram Abd-alkdhium Alnoory Qusai Y. Al-Kubaisi <p> This study aims to figure out how to calculate water recharge using the soil conservation service method, one of the most widely used methods for calculating runoff volume following rainfall. The research is being conducted in Ameriat Al-Falluja City, Al-Anbar Governorate. The Iraqi meteorological organization's Baghdad Airport and Al-Ramadi stations provided data on the research area from 1989 to 2020 as total annual rainfall (123.1 mm), the RH% (43%), the mean monthly T (23.6 °C), total evaporation (3169.61 mm), the wind speed (3.1 m/s), and the sunshine duration (9 h/day). The climate of the study area is described as arid. The total evapotranspiration value quantity is 1137.38 mm for the 32-year comparison period, while the total amount of correct evapotranspiration was 992.3 mm.</p> <p>Water surplus is 36.7% of total rainfall, which equals 45.2 mm. Groundwater recharge is 45.2 mm, with a rate of 36.7%, showing the groundwater recharge (%) from total rainfall. The value of groundwater recharge throughout a year is about equivalent to 23.6848* 10<sup>5</sup> m<sup>3</sup>/year.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Clay minerals study of the Kolosh Formation at selected sections from northern Iraq: Implications for provenance history 2022-06-30T11:30:48+00:00 Ayad Mohamad Jouer Dathan Abdul Salam Mehdi Altarif Amaar J. Mohammed Al-Taiiy <p> The mineralogical study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) supported by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on the claystone of the Kolosh Formation from northern Iraq was conducted to Shows the provenance history of rocks. Chlorite, montmorillonite, illite, palygorskite, and kaolinite were recorded in different amounts in the study area. The association of montmorillonite and chlorite in the claystone of the Kolosh Formation (Paleocene) refers to the marine environment. Chlorite and montmorillonite are the common minerals in the Kolosh Formation with less common of illite, kaolinite and palygorskite. These clay minerals are of authigenic, detrital and diagenetically origin, which are controlled mainly by the source rocks, paleoclimatic conditions and the burial diagenesis. The clay minerals assemblages refer to be derived mainly from Fe-Mg rich with minor Si-Al rich silicate minerals, which are very common in the ophiolites associated with the basic igneous rocks. These rocks composed the major lithological units in the Zagros Thrust Belt of NE Iraq.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Using SWAT Model to Estimate the Water Balance of Wadi Al-Mohammadi Basin, Western Iraq 2022-08-02T22:01:00+00:00 Mahmood H. D. Al-Kubaisi Qusai Y. S. Al-Kubaisi <p> Water balance as a technique is considered one of the means that is relied upon in solving significant hydrological problems. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model was used in this study to assess the water balance in the Wadi Al-Mohammadi basin located at the eastern edge of the Western Desert. Digital elevation model, soil data, Land use - Land cover, and climate data represent the most important requirements for the SWAT model's input as a database. The Wadi Al-Mohammadi basin delineation results show the overall drainage area was 2286.8 km<sup>2</sup> with seven sub-basins. The trend line of climate data indicates a clear increase in the total rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, and solar radiation from 1990-2020, while the wind speed decreased during the observed period. The average monthly hydrological components (precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, surface runoff, lateral flow, and deep aquifer recharge) representing the basin's water balance are 68.8 mm, 67 mm, 2.03 mm, 0.02 mm, and 0 mm, respectively.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Lithostratigraphy and Biostratigraphy of the Shiranish Formation (Late Campanian- Maastrichtian) in Diana area, Northern Iraq 2022-08-06T19:09:51+00:00 Aamer M. Al-Dulaimi Mohammed A. Al-Haj Omar A. Al-Badrani Ali I. Al-Juboury <p> The lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic studies of the Shiranish Formation in the Diana area, Erbil, Northern Iraq, were conducted to distinguish the main lithostratigraphic units, depositional environment and the formation age. The Shiranish Formation in the study area can be divided into three rock units. The lower and upper units consist of marly limestone, marl and limestone deposited in the outer shelf environment, while the middle unit is dominated by laminated calcareous shale and marl deposited in the upper bathyal environment. Calcareous nannofossils showed the presence of about 20 species/genera in the studied Shiranish Formation. Three biozones are identified; <em>Misceomarginatus pleniporus</em> biozone; <em>Ceratolithoides aculeus</em> biozone, and <em>Uniplanarius sissinghii</em> biozone. From a regional perspective, these biozones were compared with other nannobiozones, leading to the conclusion that the studied section is of Middle Campanian age.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Estimation and Distribution of Some Heavy Metals in Urban Soils at Kufa, Najaf Governorate: An Environmental Geochemistry Research 2022-09-13T19:35:12+00:00 Ruaa I. Muslim Zinah S. Al-Ankaz Mohanad R. A. Al-Owaidi <p class="Abstract" style="margin-bottom: 0in;">Kufa, considered one of the important cities in Iraq, is facing a rapid increase in population proportion and urban development in buildings and industry. Therefore, the concentration of several hazardous heavy metals is the main focus of this study. It presents the distribution and Estimation of heavy metals in urban lands in the Kufa area as an environmental geochemical study. Twenty samples of urban surface soils were collected in many sites to determine concentrations, distribution, and contamination of elements Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Th, U, Pb, Hf, Nb, and Fe. The mean concentrations of heavy metals were compared with the local studies, UCC guidelines, and the world reference. To distinguish anthropogenic pollution, EF and I<sub>geo</sub> guides were calculated. The obtained results established that contamination in Kufa soil land was slightly polluted by U (2.83ppm) and Nb (10.81ppm) and moderately polluted by Pb (31.7ppm) and Hf (9.75ppm). The research revealed that the reason for the elevation in the lead in the Kufa soil is that it often suffers from severe vehicle overcrowding during religious occasions.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science