Iraqi Journal of Science https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer-reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self-financed by applying fees on the researcher's work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> College of Science - University of Baghdad en-US Iraqi Journal of Science 0067-2904 Data Mining Methods for Extracting Rumors Using Social Analysis Tools https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5018 <p> Rumors are typically described as remarks whose true value is unknown. A rumor on social media has the potential to spread erroneous information to a large group of individuals. Those false facts will influence decision-making in a variety of societies. In online social media, where enormous amounts of information are simply distributed over a large network of sources with unverified authority, detecting rumors is critical. This research proposes that rumor detection be done using Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools as well as six distinct Machine Learning (ML) methods (Nave Bayes (NB), random forest (RF), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), Logistic Regression (LR), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) and Decision Tree (DT)). The data set size for the suggested experiment was 16,865 samples. For pre-processing tokenization was used to separates each one of the tokens from the others. Normalization that removes all non-word tokens, deleting stop words was utilized to remove all unnecessary words, and stemming was used to obtain the stem of the tokens. Prior to using the six classification algorithms, the major feature extraction approach Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) was applied. The RF classifier performed better compared to all other classifiers with an accuracy of 99%, according to the data.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Machine learning, Text classification, Naïve Byes, RF, KNN, DT, Natural language processing, SGD).</p> Manahil Zayno Abdulkareem Merhej Radhi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3618 3627 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.36 Self-adaptive Differential Evolution based Optimized MIMO Beamforming 5G Networks https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5106 <p> The industrial factory is one of the challenging environments for future wireless communication systems, where the goal is to produce products with low cost in short time. This high level of network performance is achieved by distributing massive MIMO that provides indoor networks with joint beamforming that enhances 5G network capacity and user experience as well. Judging from the importance of this topic, this study introduces a new optimization problem concerning the investigation of multi-beam antenna (MBA) coverage possibilities in 5G network for indoor environments, named Base-station Beams Distribution Problem (BBDP). This problem has an extensive number of parameters and constrains including user’s location, required data rate and number of antenna elements. Thus, BBDP can be considered as NP-hard problem, where complexity increases exponentially as its dimension increases. Therefore, it requires a special computing method that can handle it in a reasonable amount of time. In this study, several differential evolution (DE) variants have been suggested to solve the BBDP problem. The results show that among all DE variants the self-adaptive DE (jDE) can find feasible solutions and outperform the classical ones in all BBDP scenarios with coverage rate of 85% and beam diameter of 500 m. </p> Iman Hadi Abdulameer Rawaa Dawoud Al-Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3628 3639 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.37 Optimal CPU Jobs Scheduling Method Based on Simulated Annealing Algorithm https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5425 <p> Task scheduling in an important element in a distributed system. It is vital how the jobs are correctly assigned for each computer’s processor to improve performance. The presented approaches attempt to reduce the expense of optimizing the use of the CPU. These techniques mostly lack planning and in need to be comprehensive. To address this fault, a hybrid optimization scheduling technique is proposed for the hybridization of both First-Come First-Served (FCFS), and Shortest Job First (SJF). In addition, we propose to apply Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm as an optimization technique to find optimal job’s execution sequence considering both job’s entrance time and job’s execution time to balance them to reduce the job’s waiting time to be executed. As a result, this research proves that the proposed technique achieves an optimization efficiency with a percentage average 45.5 % according to the FCFS algorithm and 54.5% according to SJF method.</p> Emad I Abdul Kareem Salam Ayad Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3640 3651 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.38 Generating Streams of Random Key Based on Image Chaos and Genetic Algorithm https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5222 <p> Today the Genetic Algorithm (GA) tops all the standard algorithms in solving complex nonlinear equations based on the laws of nature. However, permute convergence is considered one of the most significant drawbacks of GA, which is known as increasing the number of iterations needed to achieve a global optimum. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new GA based on chaotic systems. In GA processes, we use the logistic map and the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) to generate chaotic values to use instead of each step requiring random values. The Chaos Genetic Algorithm (CGA) avoids local convergence more frequently than the traditional GA due to its diversity. The concept is using chaotic sequences with LFSR to generate seed values for genetic algorithms, which can generate keys with a high degree of randomness. The quality of key (generated sequence) was tested using known standard tests, then a comparison table is presented to show the increase in ratios in the test before and after applying GA, demonstrating that the proposed system generates sequence (key) with high randomness degree, The proposed system achieved an increase in the randomness rate by four degrees on average and thus it solves the problem of repetition and linearity, Finally, The system is built in the Java environment.</p> Fatima Faiz Saleh Nada Hussein M. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3652 3661 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.39 Consumer Use of E-Banking in Iraq: Security Breaches and Offered Solution https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5873 <p> After the software revolution in the last decades, the field of information technology had a tremendous evolution that made many organizations reach the best benefits from this evolution in technologies. The banking sector evolved their old system from ordinary system to the online system. The term E-banking appears to cover almost all bank operations such as money transactions, account management, instant reports, instant notifications. E-banking offers several advantages to clients, but this opens many challenges and motivates unauthorized parties to focus on creating methods and exploiting weaknesses to attack and steal critical information that belongs to the banking system or clients. Iraqi banks recently adopted E-banking serves and made them available to all their clients. However, this shift in approach leaves many clients vulnerable to cyber-attacks. This paper presents an analytical study on Iraqi clients using E-banking as a service using real case studies. Many researchers prevent these threats by introducing novel methods to support cybersecurity specialists. This paper covers related work and the most common terms involving E-banking. It also covers the risks involved in E-banking, most common attacks, and modern security methods to prevent attacks.</p> Qusay Zuhair Abdulla Mustafa Dhiaa Al-Hassani Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3662 3670 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.40 Quasi-Hadamard products of New Subclass of Analytic Functions of β-Uniformly Univalent Function Defined by Salagean q-Differential Operator https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5162 <p>In this paper, we show many conclusions on the Quasi-Hadamard products of new Subclass of analytic functions of β-Uniformly univalent function defined by Salagean q-differential operator.</p> O. M. Aljuboori Kassim A. Jassim Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3578 3586 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.30 Some Properties of Algebraically Paranormal Operator https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/3897 <p>Through this study, the following has been proven, if is an algebraically paranormal operator acting on separable Hilbert space, then satisfies the ( ) property and is also satisfies the ( ) property for all . These results are also achieved for ( ) property.</p> <p> In addition, we prove that for a polaroid operator with finite ascent then after the property ( ) holds for for all .</p> Zaman Adel Rashid Buthainah A.A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3587 3591 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.31 Solving Nonlinear Boundary Value Problem Arising of Natural Convection Porous Fin By Using the Haar Wavelet Collocation Method and Temimi and Ansari Method https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4543 <p> In this article, the boundary value problem of convection propagation through the permeable fin in a natural convection environment is solved by the Haar wavelet collocation method (HWCM). We also compare the solutions with the application of a semi-analytical method , namely the Temimi and Ansari (TAM), that is characterized by accuracy and efficiency.The proposed method is also characterized by simplicity and efficiency. The possibility of applying the proposed method to many types of linear or nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations.</p> Sinan H. Abd Areej Salah Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3592 3599 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.32 Generalized Commuting Mapping in Prime and Semiprime Rings https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4879 <p> Let R be an associative ring. The essential purpose of the present paper is to introduce the concept of generalized commuting mapping of R. Let U be a non-empty subset of R, a mapping <em> </em> <em>:</em> R R is called a generalized commuting mapping on U if there exist a mapping <em>:</em>R R such that =<em>0</em>, holds for all U. Some results concerning the new concept are presented.</p> Auday Hekmat Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3600 3604 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.33 2-prime submodules of modules https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/6409 <p> Let R be a commutative ring with unity. And let E be a unitary R-module. This paper introduces the notion of 2-prime submodules as a generalized concept of 2-prime ideal, where proper submodule H of module F over a ring R is said to be 2-prime if , for r R and x F implies that or . we prove many properties for this kind of submodules, Let H is a submodule of module F over a ring R then H is a 2-prime submodule if and only if [N ] is a 2-prime submodule of E, where r R. Also, we prove that if F is a non-zero multiplication module, then [K: F] [H: F] for every submodule k of F such that H K. Furthermore, we will study the basic properties of this kind of submodules.</p> Fatima Dhiyaa Jasem Alaa A. Elewi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3605 3611 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.34 The Discs Structures of A4-Graph for the Held Group https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/7490 <p> Let G be a finite group and X be a G-conjugacy of elements of order 3. The A4-graph of G is a simple graph with vertex set X and two vertices <em>x,y</em>ÎX are linked if x≠ y and <em>xy</em><sup>-1 </sup>is an involution element. This paper aims to investigate the A4-graph properties for the monster Held group He.</p> Asawer Al-Adhami Aliaa. Aqeel Majeed Ali Abd Aubad Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3612 3617 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.35 Biodiversity and Structure of Rotifera Communities in the Great Garraf Drain Channel, Southern Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4931 <p> Three sites, selected on the Great Garraf Drain Channel (GGDC) demonstrated the first ever study dealing with rotifers biodiversity features from August 2019 till July 2020. Seventy-two taxonomic units were identified. The high densities of rotifera ranged from 733.32 - 32300 Ind./m<sup>3</sup>. <em>Brachionus urceolaris,</em> <em>Keratella quadrata</em> (long spin), <em>Keratella quadrata</em> (short spin) and <em>Syncheta obloga</em> were the most common relative abundance recorded in the index. In contrast the results of the constant index showed that there were nine constant taxonomic units. The species richness index was recorded from 1.489- 6.900. Jaccard presence similarity index revealed a strong link between stations 2 and 3 with a value of 83.30%. Hereinafter Shannon-Weiner diversity index recorded values ranging from 0.821-2.901 bit/Ind. The species uniformity index ranged from 0.296- 0.925. Nevertheless, the values of this index indicated no environmental stress on rotifera assemblage in the river environment. Also, it was concluded that GGDC was considered generally ranging from moderately polluted in some sites to highly polluted water in other locations during the study period.</p> Duaa R. M. Al-Safi Muhanned R. Nashaat Jameel S. AL-Sariy Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3300 3312 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.5 Detection of TNF Alpha Level as Biomarker in Different Stages of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Infection https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5156 <p> Leishmaniasis is a global illness that is endemic in many countries, including Iraq. The characteristic of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the development of skin ulcers that are controlled by the immune system. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a cytokine generated by the innate immune response to CL infection, can influence disease clearance in the human host. The effect of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in CL ulcer development during the infection is not well established. In this study TNF-α level was detected in the patients who suffered from cutaneous leishmaniasis. This level was also assessed in the newly diagnosed patients and others who were undergoing different stages of pentostam treatment. Notably the results revealed a significant increment in TNF-α serum levels in the test groups of newly infected patients, as well as, in the patients enduring second and third trials of pentostam treatment, which was (1125.49, 838.75, 1264.26) ng/ml accordingly, in comparison with healthy control group which was 235.35 ng/ml. Furthermore, there was no significant observation in TNF-α among the three patient groups. The perceived rise of TNF-α serum levels may give insights into this pro-inflammatory cytokine as a biomarker in the prognosis and tracking the disease progression. </p> Ashjan Mohammed Hussein Hayder Zuhair Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3313 3321 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.6 Correlation between Tumor Necrosis Factor–Alfa and Anti-tyrosine Phosphatase with Obesity and Diabetes Type 2 https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4351 <p> This study was done to find a correlation between adipokines such as tumor necrosis- alpha (TNF-α) and autoantigens such as anti-tyrosine phosphatase (IA2) with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For this purpose, one hundred forty adult males were selected. 90 of them were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 50 healthy males). The subjects were divided into four groups. Group 1 had healthy controls with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5-25, group 2 had individuals who suffered from obesity only (BMI above 30), group 3 consisted of diabetes patients and group 4 had individuals who were diagnosed with both obesity and diabetes. The enzyme immunoassay was intended for quantification determination of TNF in serum. The results found a significantly (p≤0.001) higher concentration of TNF-α (21.01 ± 1.27 pg/ml) in patients suffering from both obesity and diabetes in comparison with the control (5.33 ± 0.67 pg/ml), obese patients (12.63 ± 1.35 pg/ml) and diabetes patients group (13.32 ± 0.83 pg/ml). Chi-square analysis found a significantly (p≤0.001) higher prevalence of abnormal TNF-α in males suffering from both obesity and diabetes, 73.33% compared with diabetes non-obese males 31.1%. A significant positive correlation (p≤0.01) was found between TNF-α with BMI (r= 0.65) and HbA1c (r= 0.57). No significant differences in IA2 concentration were observed between all groups.Also no significant correlation was observed between IA2 with BMI and HbA1c.</p> Edrees Mohammad Ameen Hassan Yaqoob Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3322 3331 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.7 The Correlation Between Salmonella typhi Associated Gallstone Formation and Gallbladder Cancer https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5175 <p> The current research focused on the detection of <em>Salmonella typhi</em> and its relationship with the formation of gallstone and gall bladder cancer. Samples were collected from patients aged between 32-67 years (males and females) in Mosul city hospitals. The samples included 30gallbladder fresh tissues from patients suffering from gallstone and 20 formalinfixed-paraffin embedded (FFPE) gallbladder tissue from patients confirmed with gallbladder cancer. The results showed that 33% <em>S. typhi</em> isolates were diagnosed from the tissue samples using conventional methods, biochemical tests and Vitek2. All fresh tissues samples gave positive PCR results for the presence of <em>FliC-d </em>and <em>CdtB </em>genes and 46% positivity for <em>S. typhi</em> compared with conventional methods, 64% for females, 35% for males and 40 % positive in the gallbladder cancer of which 62% were females and 37%males.</p> Sahira I.H. Al-Sanjary Amera Mahmood M. Al-Rawi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3332 3339 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.8 Aquifer depth determination of low permeability layers using geo-resistivity data: A case study of Enyigba mine area and environs, South Eastern Nigeria https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4286 <p> Many geophysical methods have been applied to locate groundwater in Nigeria’s rural and urban villages. Locating groundwater in low permeability formations like shales and siltstones is even more challenging due to the difficulty of mapping fracture zones within these formations. The fracture zones serve as potential aquifers in low permeability formations and have been the object of groundwater search in shales, siltstones and other low permeability formations. The electrical resistivity method has proven helpful in fracture mapping within low permeability formations due to the existing resistivity contrast usually observed between the fractured and non-fractured sections in the Shales and Siltstones. Three vertical electrical geosounding datasets (VES 1, VES 2 and VES 3) were acquired in the Schlumberger configuration, using a maximum current electrode spacing of 200m to delineate the fracture zones based on their electrical resistivities. The acquired datasets were processed and modelled using IP12 Win software, while the processed datasets were correlated with local geology to estimate the depths of the fractured shales in the area. Results show five modelled geo-electric layers with depths to the fractured shales ranging from 17-25m, while aquifer thicknesses range from 7 to 12m. Aquifer resistivities range from 58 - 115 ohm-m. The curves are primarily of the QH type. One of the Vertical Electrical Sounding Data points (VES 2) encountered an anomalously low resistivity zone at a depth range of 5 to 8m which was interpreted as a galena lode. The low resistivity zone has been confirmed through exploratory drilling to tie with Lead-Zinc lodes at a depth of 8m.</p> Amobi Ekwe George-best Azuoko Damian Iwuoha Elijah Nkitnam Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3424 3431 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.18 Geology and Correlative Analysis of Borehole Logs with Geo-electric Sections of Some Parts of Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4368 <p> The property of rocks varies from one geological location to another or even disappears laterally, and these properties are important factors in determining groundwater quantity. This makes this research work focused on the correlative analysis of lithologies and borehole logs with geo-electric sections in the basement terrain of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, using Borehole logging and geophysical electrical method. Twenty-two vertical electrical sounding stations and borehole Logsare acquired within the study area with a maximum Schlumberger electrode separation of 100m. The data are interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively by partial curve matching and computer iteration to obtain the first-order geo-electric model parameters. The results of the geo-electric investigation reveal some lithological Layers such as topsoil, clay, weathered laterite basement, and fresh basement. At the same time, those from boreholes include topsoil, loamy soil, friable brown soil, clayey-sand, sandy-clay, laterite weathered basement/saprolite, and Fresh Basement. Electrical resistivity and borehole logs correlation revealed: poor, poor-moderate and moderate-perfect correlations based on a comparison between the number of lithological layers encountered from both vertical electrical sounding derived lithology and those from borehole and depth of occurrence. The depth of water struck grouped into three 0 - 45 m, 45 - 70 m, and 50 - 100 m to bring out the most favourable depth of aquifer potential while three yields categories 0.5-2 lt/s; 2 - 4lt/s and 4 -12 lt/s are observed with the above depth classification respectively. Good yielding fractures increase with depth in the quartzite regions but decrease with depth in both gneisses and the schist rock bodies. The correlations between geo-electric sections and borehole logs have shown that the geoelectric section obtained from the vertical electric section cannot totally be substituted for borehole logging but can serve as alternative means of classifying the sub-surface lithologies in the absence of borehole logging.</p> Olumuyiwa Michael Ajibade Stephen Oluwafemi Ariyo Seun Damola Oladipupo Abiola Omolabake Okeleye Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3432 3446 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.19 Hydrochemical Study of the Southern Sector of the Al-Massab Al-Aam Canal Water, Southern Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4906 <p>Al- Masab AL-Aam canal (or the Main Drain) is a vital strategic project in Iraq. It collects the drain water from the agricultural lands and drains to the Arabian Gulf via Shatt Al-Basra. Fifteen water samples were collected from different sites along the course of the Al- Masab Al-Aam canal southern sector extending from Nasiriyah Basra to evaluate the hydrochemical properties. The variation of the sediment’s texture along the southern sector was investigated. The results reflected that the sediment is characterized by the presence of sand, silt, and clay. It is noted that the amount of salt in the water increases during the summer when temperatures are rising, and consequently, the evaporation rate increases. Changes in the saturation index also continuously affect the dissolution and precipitation of minerals along the river. The results of the saturation index analysis showed that the relationship between sulfate concentration and mineral saturation coefficients tends to increase their solubility for most minerals. The importance of the research lies in knowing and identifying the factors causing the change in water quality through studying the hydrological and hydrochemical properties of water and comparing the results to find out the reasons for the increase and decrease in its concentrations along the study area.</p> Waleed H. Asd Hussein B. Ghalib Jaffar H. Alzubaydi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3447 3459 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.20 Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Lifting Capacity in Directional Wells for Garraf Oil Field https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5139 <p> The cutting transport problem in the drilling operation is very complex because many parameters impact the process, which is nonlinearity interconnected. It is an important factor affecting time, cost and quality of the deviated and horizontal well. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of main drilling Parameters, rheological properties and cuttings that characterise lifting capacity through calculating the minimum flow rate required and cutting bed height and investigate these factors and how they influenced stuck pipe problems in deviated wells for Garraf oil field. The results obtained from simulations using Well Plan™ Software were showed that increasing viscosity depends on other conditions for an increase or decrease fluid flow rate required, increasing cutting density, cutting size, and ROP requires an increased fluid flow rate and when increasing RPM, increasing mud weight reduces the fluid flow rate required hence better hole cleaning. The major findings from the analysis parameter that wellbore inclination, mud density and pipe rotation affect the minimum flow rate needed for good hole cleaning. The drilling section of a well with fluid rates below the minimum flow rate required is considered the major cause of mechanical stuck pipes. In sliding drilling mode, the flow must be increased above the critical flow rate to reduce the likelihood of mechanical stuck pipe. Also, cuttings properties, fluid rheology, and rate of penetration have some influence on cuttings transport.</p> Nawar Qasim Kattami Hassan Abdul Hadi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3460 3477 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.21 Mineralogy of Sand Dune Fields around Hor Al-Dalmaj Between Wasit and Al-Qadesiyah Governorates - Central Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5100 <p>Vast percentage of the Hor Al-Dalmaj area is covered with sand dunes fields due to desertification. Therefore, it is vital to research these dunes to limit their bad action on the natural environment by defining the mineralogical composition of these sand dunes deposited around Hor Al-Dalmaj lake between Wast and Al-Qasisiyah Governorates to determine the provenance or the source of these dunes. Barchan and Nabkha dunes represent the main types that are recognized. The dimensions of barchan dunes are recognizing by a height range of about 0.5 to 3m, with lateral extension ranging from 2 to 15m and longitudinal extinction ranging from 3 to 15m. While the dimensions of nabkha dunes range from 10 cm to 2m in length and 15cm to 2m high. According to the major wind direction, these dunes are extended from North West to south-east. The mineralogical investigation reveals that the light minerals of studied dunes consist mainly of quartz, feldspars and various rock fragments such as carbonate, chert, mudstone, evaporate, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. The most frequent heavy minerals are opaque, chlorite, pyroxenes, amphiboles, muscovite, biotite, zircon, epidotes, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, kyanite, and staurolite. The source of these sediments is recent sediment that has formed in river terraces, flood plain and Quaternary deposits in the Mesopotamian Plain, and the outcrops of the ancient sedimentary formations in the north northwestern, west, and southwestern Iraq.</p> Muna M. Nuri Al-Mashhadani Hasan K. Jasim Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3478 3488 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.22 The Influence of Diagenesis Processes on the Reservoir Properties of Hartha Formation in Selected oil Fields, Northern Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5195 <p> The Hartha Formation reservoir was evaluated to be produced in the near future in Y oil and J fields, West of the Tigris River in northern Iraq. Due to geological data analysis of the Hartha facies and diagenesis could enhance oil production with minimized risks, this research tried to deal with data to support the oil production. The Hartha reservoir is subdivided into five-rock units, Har-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It is of Heterogenic facies limestone, dolomite, dolomitic limestone and argillaceous dolomite. The Hartha Formation is a clean carbonate; it has an effective porosity. It consists of lime mudstone-packstone skeletal grain. This conclusion is based on the lithology, core microfacies, cutting, thin section and log interpretation variability.</p> <p> The study aims to characterize the depositional and diagenetic properties of the Hartha carbonate and their effects on the reservoir quality. This research indicated that the depositional setting is a gentle slope ramp including outer, mid and inner ramps. The dissolution and dolomitization in near-surface and marine environments formed secondary porosity types as a vuggy, cavern, and melodic. The fracture is a good reservoir in the upper part of the Hartha reservoir. The lower section is affected by other diagenetic processes causing a destructive effect on porosity such as compaction, Neomorphism and cementation. The measured and calculated porosity with an integration of the measured permeability in the Hartha Reservoir gave a good reservoir quality to the formation. These data are coming from the analysis of the primary and secondary porosity. The petrophysical cut-off provided an excellent result for the rock properties as the net to gross ratio of the most units of the Hartha Reservoir.</p> Amel K. Nooralddin Aboosh H. Al-hadidy Medhat E. Nasser Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3489 3504 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.23 Structural study Using 2D Seismic Reflection Data of East lake Razzazah Area, Central Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5228 <p> This research is focused on an interpretive of 2D seismic data to study is reinterpreting seismic data by applying sufficient software (Petrel 2017) of the area between Al-Razzazah Lake and the Euphrates river belonging to Karbala'a and Al-Anbar Governorates, central Iraq. The delineation of the sub-surface structural features and evaluation of the structure of Najmah and Zubair Formations was done. The structure interpretation showed that the studied area was affected by normal fault bearing (NW-SE) direction with a small displacement. In contrast, time and depth maps showed monocline structures (nose structures) located in the western part of the studied area.</p> Shahd S. Alhusainy Ali M. Al-Rahim Muhammed H. Geeter Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3505 3520 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.24 The Jurassic and Deep Structures Inferred from Gravity Data Depending on Stripping Technique for The Uppermost Layers in Central and Southern Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5399 <p> The gravity anomalies of the Jurassic and deep structures were obtained by stripping the gravity effect of Cretaceous and Tertiary formations from the available Bouguer gravity map in central and south Iraq. The gravity effect of the stripped layers was determined depending on the density log or the density density obtained from the sonic log. The density relation with the seismic velocity of Gardner et al (1974) was used to obtain density from sonic logs in case of a lack of density log. The average density of the Cretaceous and Tertiary formation were determined then the density contrast of these formations was obtained. The density contrast and thickness of all stratigraphic formations in the area between the sea level to the top of Jurassic formations were used to determine the gravity effect of these layers. The gravity anomaly map of the stripped formation was determined. The gravity anomaly map of the stripped formation was subtracted from the Bouguer gravity map, and the gravity anomaly map of deep structures was obtained. The regional and residual maps (3<sup>rd</sup> order polynomial ) were determined for the gravity anomaly maps before and after stripping. The regional gravity map before stripping shows one positive anomaly located at the western part of the study area and west Abu-Jir and Euphrates faults. The regional gravity map after stripping shows a positive anomaly located along an axis extended from Kut toward Najaf. This positive anomaly map divided the sedimentary basin into two sub-basins. The positive gravity residual anomaly of the Bouguer map before stripping shows regionally three structural axes trending NW-SE. These axes are Baghdad-Kut axis, northwest Karbala axis and west Samawa- Nasiriyah axis. The positive residual anomaly map after stripping shows two important anomaly areas. The first area is located between Kut and Karbala-Najaf . and the second is located northwest Karbala by about 100-120 km. These two areas may be prospective areas for hydrocarbon. The stripping method application in the study area shows good result; therefor, it can be used to enhance the gravity data to investigate deep structures in other areas. </p> Ahmed S. AL-Banna Reham S. AL-Saffar Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3521 3532 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.25 Limestone reserve calculation for engineering purposes for the Nfayil Formation (middle Miocene) in Bahr Al-Najaf Depression, Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5585 <p> Limestones have considerable commercial importance because they are used as building stones and are widely used for flooring and interior and exterior facings. On the other hand, the reserve calculation reveals the economic effectiveness of the investigation. This study aims to calculate the reserve of the middle Miocene limestone for engineering purposes. The limestone beds of the Nfayil Formation in Central Iraq have been studied over 15 outcrop sections. The Nfayil bed has an average thickness of about 1.64 m, while the overburden has an average of about 0.93 m. The average bulk density of limestone is 2.1 gm/cm<sup>3</sup>. Kriging and triangulation method has been adopted and used in the calculation and assessment of reserve. The industrial layer was calculated based on the American classification, where the assessment is from the inferred reserve, which is according to the geological characteristics of the industrial layer, as well as the presence of a few wells obtained for the studied area (15 wells). The industrial bed's total reserve (tonnage) is 253,245,195 tons, which is acceptable for accuracy and reliability compared to the American system. These values are acceptable for the number of the studied wells.</p> Shatha F. Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3533 3543 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.26 Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization Using Well Logs of Nahr Umr Formation in Kifl Oil field, Central Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5713 <p> This study aims to determine the petrophysical characteristics of the three wells in the Kifl Oilfield, central Iraq. The well logs were used to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity, designate hydrocarbon and water-bearing zones, and determine the Nahr Umr Formation's petrophysical parameters. The Nahr Umr reservoir mainly consists of sandstone at the bottom and has an upper shale zone containing a small proportion of oil. The geophysical logs data from three oil wells include gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron, density, acoustic, and spontaneous potential logs. A gamma-ray log was employed for lithology differentiation, and a resistivity log was used to determine the response of distinct zones' productivity. The petrophysical parameters of shale volume, total porosity, effective porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, and flushed zone saturation were evaluated using computer processing analyses (CPI). These parameters were plotted by interactive petrophysics (IP) software. The effective porosity (PHE) in the sandstone unit ranges between 3.2 and 31.2%, water saturation (SW) ranges between 6.6 and 100%, and hydrocarbon saturation and (Sh) range from 6 to 65%. The Nahr Umr Formation has moderate to low reservoir characteristics in the lower sandstone unit.</p> Buraq Adnan AL-Baldawi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3544 3554 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.27 Acquisition and Preparation of 3D Seismic Data for Pre-Stack Inversion at Siba Oilfield, Southeastern Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5970 <p> The current study includes preparing a geometric proposal of the main parameters that must be worked within a seismic reflection survey to prepare a three-dimensional subsurface image. This image represents the Siba oil field located in Basra, southern Iraq. The results were based on two options for selecting these approved elements to create a three-dimensional image of the Mishrif, Zubair and Yamama formations as well as the Jurassic and Permian Khuff and the pre-Khuff reservoir area. The first option is represented in the geometry in option -1 is 12 lines, 6 shots, and 216 chs. The receiver density is 66.67 receivers / km<sup>2</sup>, so the shot density is the same. Total shots are 21000, which is the same number of receiving points. The survey area (in km<sup>2</sup>) and full fold area (in km<sup>2</sup>) are 317and 328, respectively. However, the second option in the geometry are16 lines, 16 shots, and 208 chs. Receiver density and shot density are 50, while the total shots are 16200 and the total receiving points are 16000; with survey area and full folded area are 198 and 198 km<sup>2</sup>. The aim of the current study is to characterize the structure and reservoir quality of Yamama and Zubair intervals and to image potential exploration targets such as the Mishrif, Jurassic, Permian Kuff and Pre Khuff formations. The present study succeeded in preparing the geometric proposal and getting at a subsurface image of the reservoir in three dimensions.</p> Furat Al-Musawi Ali M. Abed Rami M. Idan Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3555 3569 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.28 Accumulation Detection of Cadmium in some land-use soil of Baghdad city, Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/6461 <p> This study aims to detect cadmium accumulation in the soil of Baghdad. Twenty soil samples were collected randomly during November 2020 to cover the study area, emphasizing the nature of each area (agricultural, commercial, industrial, residential, roadside, and waste dumping sites). All soil samples were subjected to geochemical analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry (ASS) to determine the concentration of cadmium in Baghdad soil. The laboratory data was utilized to design the spatial analysis map using Arc GIS 10.4.1 to investigate the spatial distribution of cadmium. The results demonstrated that the total content of cadmium in the study area ranged from 0.121to 1.78 mg/kg. All results of cadmium concentrations are within the allowable limits of WHO (3 mg/kg), and the mean concentration of cadmium according to the type of land use is shown by the following decreasing order: roadside &gt; agricultural areas &gt; residential areas &gt; industrial areas &gt;waste dumping site&gt; commercial. In addition, the spatial analysis map showed the accumulation of cadmium concentration on <u>the A</u>l-Karkh side than on the Al-Rissafa side of Baghdad city. A comparison between cadmium concentration in the soil of some land- use for the current study and cadmium concentration in previous studies showed that the concentration of cadmium decreased from previous years, except roadside sites recorded a higher cadmium concentration than the cadmium concentration of roadside areas according to [12].</p> Mena Amer Fadhel Firas Mudhafar Abdulhussein Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3570 3577 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.29 Removing Cobalt ions from Industrial Wastewater Using Chitosan https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4733 <p> In batch experiments, a natural chitosan adsorbent was employed to extract cobalt ions from industrial wastewater under varied parameters of starting concentration, adsorbent weight, pH, and contact duration. The adsorbent was examined using FTIR, XRD, and AFM. For an initial cobalt ion concentration of 5x10<sup>-2 </sup>mol/l at pH 6, time 35 minutes, temperature 25 °C, and adsorbing dose 0.1 g, the results showed a maximum removal percentage of 99.0 percent. The Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic model both suit the experimental data well. According to thermodynamic studies, the process was spontaneous and endothermic.</p> Hakim H. Kadhim Khulood A. Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3251 3263 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.1 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Metals Complexes with New Acidicazo Ligand 4-[(2-Amino-4-Phenylazo)-Methyl]-Cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5202 <p><strong> </strong>4-[(2-Amino-4-phenylazo)-methyl]-cyclo hexane carboxylic acid, a new Azo (LH2) ligand, was synthesized by reaction of the diazonium salt of trans-4-(amino-methyl) cyclo hexane carboxylic acid with 3-amino phenol. The azo ligand was characterized by micro elemental analysis (C.H.N.O.) and TGA as well as spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, FTIR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, and LC-Mass). Atomic absorption, elemental analysis, infrared, LC-Mass, TGA, and UV-Vis spectral methods, as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility, were used to characterize the complexes of Ni (II), Pd (II), and Pt (IV). The following general formula has been given for the produced compounds based on the results obtained, which are as following: the Ni (II) complex has a 1:1 metal-ligand ratio, but the Pd (II) and Pt (IV) complexes have a 1:2 metal-ligand ratio.</p> Rasha Khider Hussain Al-Daffay Abbas Ali Salih Al-Hamdani Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3264 3275 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.2 Study of Micellar Behavior of a Tween 80 Surfactant in Aqueous Media Containing Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5400 <p> The surface properties of mixtures of a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (Tw 80) and a cationic drug, diphenhydramine HCl (DPH<strong>)</strong> have been investigated. This was done by calculating the surface excess concentration (Γ<sub>max</sub>), minimum molecular area (A<sub>min</sub>), surface pressure at the CMC (ᴨ<sub>cmc</sub>), Gibbs Free Energy of adsorption (ΔG°<sub>ads</sub>), Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG°<sub>m</sub>), the standard enthalpy of micellization (ΔH°<sub>m</sub>), and the standard entropy of micellization (ΔS°<sub>m</sub>). The calculation was performed using the surface tension in the temperature range of 293-323 K with the variation of surfactant concentration to determine the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the system studied. The variation of cmc values of drug concentration (DPH) with temperature was used to calculate the parameters above. The results indicate that the cmc values of Tw 80 increased when the (DPH) was added and when the temperature increased at the whole temperature studied. The results obtained for interfacial properties show that Γ<sub>max</sub> decreases with the addition of DPH and decreases with DPH concentration increase from 10<sup>-5</sup> to 10<sup>-4</sup>M and decreases with temperature increases. The results of thermodynamic properties indicate that the micellization and adsorption at the interface are spontaneous and the ΔG̊<sub>ads </sub>are more negative than ΔG̊<sub>m</sub> at all temperatures.</p> Maryam A. Azeez Inaam H. Ali Sameer H. Kareem Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3276 3282 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.3 Preparation and Characterization of New (Halogenated Azo-Schiff) Ligands with Some of their Transition Metal Ions Complexes https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5495 <p> Two new halogenated azo-Schiff ligands were prepared in two steps. The first step included a condensation between 4-amino acetophenone and 2-fluoro-4-bromo aniline to give the corresponding Schiff base. In the second step, the diazonium salt of this Schiff base reacted with 2-naphthol and 4,5-diphenylimidazole to form two new azo-Schiff base derivatives as ligands; (3-((E)-(4-((E)-1-((4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl) imino)ethyl) phenyl) diazenyl) naphthalen-2-ol (HSBAN) (L1) and ((E)-N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-1-(4-((E)-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)diazenyl) phenyl) ethan-1-imine) (HSBAI) (L2), respectively. These new ligands were characterized by mass spectrometry, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Visible spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis (CHN). Five divalent transition metal ion complexes (Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Hg) were prepared and characterized, beyond the determination of the optimal condition (concentration, pH value, and the mole ratio M:L) using UV-visible studies. Additionally, complementary techniques, such as atomic absorption, electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility, were performed to deduce their geometries. The comprehensive study suggested an octahedral geometry for all complexes except Cd and Hg complexes of the first ligand.</p> Sroor M. Kadhim Saad M. Mahdi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3283 3299 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.4 Evaluation of the Physical Parameters on Ischemic Heart Disease Patients Using Echocardiography https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4301 <p> Background: Left ventricular function and volumes have major diagnostic and prognostic importance in patients with various cardiac diseases, such as ischemic heart disease which is a life-threatening heart disease condition characterized by systolic dysfunction and a decrease in cardiac output. </p> <p>According to left ventricular ejection fraction, the degree of ischemic heart disease was classified as mild, moderate, and severe. To determine cardiac function and hemodynamics, the echocardiography technique is used, which is a noninvasive diagnostic method.</p> <p>Patients and Methods: The study included 216 patients between 25 and 75 years old; 121 males and 95 females; 265 normal individuals (age range: 25 to 75 years old); 84 males and 181 females. Doppler echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular function. The measurements included left ventricular end-diastole diameter (LVIDd), left ventricular end-systole diameter (LVIDs), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF%). </p> <p>Results show a significant correlation in the values of EDV, ESV and LVEF (all: p &lt; 0.05). The change difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was (61.88%), (47.57%), and (36.76%), respectively, for all degrees of ischemia. While the change difference in left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV)between patients and control groups was (173.38%), (248.83%), and (289.82%), respectively. On the other hand, the change in left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) was (258.73%), (495.13%), and (569.72%), respectively, for all degree of ischemia.</p> <p>Conclusion: The findings suggest that diastolic dysfunction is more common in patients than in healthy people. This could be due to the adverse effects of ischemic heart disease on the cardiac muscle. These changes in left ventricular structure may include left ventricular hypertrophy, increase in stiffness, and reduction in compliance.</p> Marrwa K. Mohammed Samar I. Essa Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3354 3358 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.10 Estimation of Uranium Concentration in Urine Samples of Three Age Groups of Healthy Individuals in Najaf Governorate Using CR-39 and LR-115 Solid State Detectors https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4646 <p><strong> </strong> Uranium concentration was estimated in urine samples of three age groups, G1≤ 30 years, n=28, G2 age range of 31-40 years, n=28, and G3 of age &gt; 40 years, n=32, using two types of detectors CR-39 and LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) for results comparison.</p> <p> Results showed that uranium mean level values for CR-39 were 1.961 ±0.08 µg/L, 1.810 ±0.09 µg/L and 1.814 ±0.076 µg/L for G<sub>1</sub>, G<sub>2</sub> and G<sub>3</sub> respectively, while the mean values of uranium concentration using LR-115 were 0.972 ±0.07 µg/L, 0.922 ±0.07 µg/L and 1.018 ±0.08 µg/L in G<sub>1</sub>, G<sub>2</sub> and G<sub>3</sub> respectively, with significant statistical difference between the results of CR-39 and LR-115 for each age group.</p> <p> Mean level values for females was 2.023± 0.09 µg/L and 1.813± 0.05 µg/L for males using CR-39 and it was 1.105± 0.09 µg/L for females and 0.933± 0.04 µg/L for males using LR-115, with significant statistical difference between results for each gender.</p> <p>It was concluded that G<sub>1</sub> ≤ 30 years have the highest uranium pollution, noting that females were more polluted with uranium than males.</p> Samia K. Abbas Hayder S. Hussain Dhuha S. Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3359 3365 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.11 Performance Analysis Of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blades Using Double Multiple Stream Tube Process https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4711 <p> The interest in green energy in recent years is very noticeable, as this energy is a very important alternative that can replace fuel in many applications, most notably electric power generation, so work must be done to develop a form of this energy such as wind energy by working on the development of turbines. The DMST method provided by Qblade software is an integrated tool for making a simulation of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The simulation was carried out on vertical axis wind turbines, designing turbine blades according to symmetrical NACA0018, and calculating some parameters such as power, torque and power coefficient. It is found that this type of turbine can be improved by treating the blade edges that contribute to the turbine power loss, thus improving the turbine at low wind speeds.</p> Muneer.R. Badah Yaseen.H. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3366 3372 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.12 Copper Phthalocyanine MWCNTs Composites: Characterization and Evaluation for Sensor and Solar Cells interlayer https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4833 <p> Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin film with and without multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is prepared using the solution based method and used in gas sensor and solar cell applications. The structural characteristics of the CuPc thin films showed a single peak around 7<sup>o</sup> with the preferred orientation for charge transportation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), morphological properties show a rough surface with some aggregates and ribbons. The optical absorption properties were determined using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy; the optical band gap has varied after adding MWCNTs to CuPc. Electrical conductivity of CuPc:MWCNTs composite is higher than that of the pure CuPc. The CuPc thin film sensr have shown good response properties to ammonia gas. The solar cell performance of the P3HT:PCBM based solar cell was enhanced.</p> <p> </p> Burak Yahya Kadem Rand Kareem Husein Zahraa Yassar Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3373 3381 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.13 Effect of the Gap Size between the Cathode and the Wehnelt Cylinder Bore on the Emittance of the Thermionic Electron Gun https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4981 <p>This paper includes simulating an electron gun design to investigate the effect of the distance between the cathode and the Wehnelt cylinder bore on the quality of the ion beam emittance and to obtain the best distance of that geometrical factor. A study of a group of designs was conducted to find this distance. The SIMION8.0 program has been used to calculate the trajectories of the electrons with initial kinetic energy of (0.1 eV) and electron current of (1×10-12 A). The investigation also includes comparisons between the equipotential line trajectories for each design as well as the field distribution and the electron trajectories. The best emittance distance was concluded to be (3 mm).</p> Najia Abdullah Mohammed Abdullah Idrees Al-Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3382 3389 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.14 Structural, Gas Sensing and Dielectric Properties of HoXFe1-X FeO3 Perovskite Compound https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5535 <p>Environmental pollutions and resources depletion motivates scientific research to innovate technologies for sustainable productive systems. To develop gas sensing substance with optimized performance a perovskite compound of HoxFe1-x FeO3 (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) were prepared by standard solid state reaction technique. The crystal structure was studied by XRD, which confirmed the formation of polycrystalline orthorhombic structure with space group Pbnm type perovskite. The preferred crystal growth of the main peak was (211). The structural parameters were also calculated and it was found that the lattice constants and particle size increased with the Ho doping ratio. The electrical properties were studied using the Hall effect, studied using the Hall effect, where the Hall coefficient, D.C conductivity (from 2.24E-06 (Ω-1.cm-1) at x=0) to 2.67E. -06 (Ω-1.cm-1) at x=0.05), mobility) 7.26 (cm2 / V.sec) at x=0 and decreased to 5.97 (cm2 / V .sec) at x=0.05 (and the concentration of charge carriers (2.14 E13 cm-3 at x=0 ) to 2.79E. 13 cm-3 at x=0.05 ) were calculated. The charge carrier concentration increased and charge mobility decreased with Ho addition. The Hall coefficient results revealed an n-type conduction mechanism. The dielectric constant ε r (in its real and imaginary parts) decreased with the increase in frequency of the applied electric field. tan δ and the AC conductivity were also calculated, and It was found that with the raise in the doping rate, the values of AC conductivity increase while tan δ decreases.</p> Ali Abd Al- Aleem Muthafar F. Al-Hilli Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3390 3401 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.15 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Simulation of a Gold-Bismuth Bi-layer Gas Sensor https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/4317 <p> The features of plasmonic surface frequency sensor technology, such as the small number of sensor samples required, electromagnetic interference, and high sensitivity, have been found to be highly important.. In this paper, a simulation program was created in Matlab_b2018 by adopting Fresnel equations for calculating the reflectivity of the electromagnetic wave between different media. A surface plasmon resonance sensor based on electromagnetic wavelengths within the range (100 nm to 1000 nm) has been proposed. The transfer matrix was used for a system consisting of four different media. The first medium is a semicircular BK7 glass prism, the second medium is a gold layer (40 nm thick), then a bismuth layer of variable thicknes(10–80) nm, and the last medium is air as the sensing medium. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique was adopted based on the Kretschmann configuration in the simulation of the proposed system. The simulation results showed that there is no SPR within the range of wavelengths (100-500nm), while SPR appears in the visible region and in the IR region at wavelengths (900 and 1000nm). The SPR phenomenon starts to weaken gradually with an increase in the thickness of the bismuth layer. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) decreases with the decrease of thickness of bismuth layer. The best value for it is (10) at thickness (d=10 nm) and wavelength (900 nm). While the height (H) of the SPR dip increased, with the best value of (0.95) at thickness (d=10 nm) and wavelength (700 nm). Also, the sensitivity increased with increasing the bismuth layer thickness at wavelengths (700 , 800,</p> <p>and 1000 ) nm. The highest obtained sensitivity(S) was (112.5 deg/RIU).</p> Ruqayah A. Ulwali Heba Kh. Abbas Ali J Karam Ali A. Al-Zuky Mahasin F. Hadi Al-Kadhemy Anwar H. Al-Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3402 3411 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.16 Influence of Cylindrical Electrode Configuration on Plasma Parameters in a Sputtering System https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5576 <p> In the present work, the effect of the cylindrical configurations of the sputtering device electrodes on the plasma parameters (Debye length, electron temperature, electron density, plasma frequency) is studied. Also, the effect of the argon gas pressure on the discharge properties is examined with gas pressures of (0.08, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) Torr. The properties of the plasma are diagnosed by optical emission spectrometry. The spectroscopic method is adopted for examining the atomic spectra of argon emission. The electron temperature is determined by the Boltzmann method. While, the Stark-widening method was employed for calculating the electron number density. The voltage against current curves of the cylindrical sprayer discharges shows the voltage to be nearly constant with slight increase in current. An increase in pressure causes the cathode cascades to compress and the negative glow to become thinner and more luminous. Plasma properties such as electron temperature and Debye length decrease with increasing pressure, while electron number density and plasma frequency increase.</p> Alaa Khamees Bard Qusay Adnan Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3412 3423 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.17 Distribution of dfrA1 and cat1 antibiotic resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from teens pregnant women in Iraq https://ijs.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/eijs/article/view/5736 <p> The present study aims to detect the distribution of <em>dfrA1</em> and <em>cat1</em> antibiotic resistance genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in pregnant teen women and determine their susceptibility to common antibiotic uses. We collected urine (116) samples from patients in hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq. Isolation and identification of bacteria (culturing, biochemical test, and genetically by <em>16S rRNA </em>gene), antibiotic susceptibility tests (eight antibiotics), and detection of the <em>dfrA1</em> and <em>cat1</em> resistance genes, and used SPSS program for statistically analyzing the results. The distributed UPEC in patients most than another causative agent in percentage (50%). It was highly resistant to Trimethoprim (82%) and Cefotaxime (82%) antibiotics. And they highly distributed frequency for <em>dfrA1</em>-gene (Trimethoprim resistance gene) (74%) than <em>cat1</em>-gene (Chloramphenicol resistance gene) (38%).</p> Rana Kadhim Mohammed Ali Attaallah Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 3340 3353 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.8.9