Iraqi Journal of Science <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer-reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self-financed by applying fees on the researcher's work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> College of Science - University of Baghdad en-US Iraqi Journal of Science 0067-2904 A Prototype of Obstacle Avoidance for Autonomous Vehicle <p> Obstacle avoidance is one of the major tasks needed to be carefully focused by the autonomous system designers. In this digital era, most industries are moving towards autonomous systems. Obstacle avoidance is considered as a primary concern for any autonomous system. In this paper, a prototype of an autonomous vehicle is presented, which is capable of obstacle avoidance using an ultrasonic sensor for its movement and avoidance. An Arduino microcontroller is used to achieve the desired operation. In order to achieve the desired task of the proposed system, a proper methodology is followed which combines appropriate selection of hardware components as well as logic design of actions for obstacle avoidance. The proposed system can easily detect an obstacle, and move accordingly towards the safe path, by first detecting and then verifying the safe path. This can be very useful if implemented in real life. It can ultimately reduce the chances of accidents of trains and road vehicles which will save lots of lives. It can also detect broken roads and train tracks, which may result in reducing the chances of accidents to some extent. The accuracy of the autonomous vehicle depends on the output received by the ultrasonic sensor; therefore, it is not affected by the lighting environment. The prototype has been tested in various experimental settings and achieves appropriate results.</p> Burhan Khan Sehrish Nizamani Nabeel Hussain Kazi Saad Nizamani Sarwat Nizamani Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2203 2210 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.33 Developing a Heuristic Algorithm to Solve Uncertainty Problem of Resource Allocation in a Software Project Scheduling <p> In project management process, the objective is to define and develop a model for planning, scheduling, controlling, and monitoring different activities of a particular project. Time scheduling plays an important role in successful implementation of various activities and general outcome of project. In practice, various factors cause projects to suffer from time delay in accomplishing the activities. One important reason is imprecise knowledge about time duration of activities. This study addresses the problem of project scheduling in uncertain resource environments, which are defined by uncertain activity durations. The study presents a solution of the levelling and allocation problems for projects that have some uncertain activities. The resources are minimised using resource levelling based on a proposed heuristic algorithm with limited duration. The algorithm performs the resource scheduling (levelling and allocation) for minimum moments. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is indicated by the resource improvement coefficient and rate of resource utilisation.</p> Marwa Adeeb Al-Jawaherry Ashraf Abdulmunim Abdulmajeed Tawfeeq Mokdad Tawfeeq Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2211 2229 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.34 A Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on New Hybrid LFSR and LCG Algorithm <p> In many areas, such as simulation, numerical analysis, computer programming, decision-making, entertainment, and coding, a random number input is required. The pseudo-random number uses its seed value. In this paper, a hybrid method for pseudo number generation is proposed using Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR) and Linear Congruential Generator (LCG). The hybrid method for generating keys is proposed by merging technologies. In each method, a new large in key-space group of numbers were generated separately. Also, a higher level of secrecy is gained such that the internal numbers generated from LFSR are combined with LCG (The adoption of roots in non-linear iteration loops). LCG and LFSR are linear structures and outputs of these Random Number Generators (RNGs) are predictable, while the proposal avoids this predictable nature. The results were tested in terms of randomness, in terms of the correlation between the keys and the effect of changing the initial state on the generated keys and the results of the tests showed that they had successfully passed the tests and resist brute force and differential attack.</p> Balsam Abdulkadhim Hameedi Anwar Abbas Hattab Muna M. Laftah Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2230 2242 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.35 A Review of Flow Migration Through Mobile Networks <p> The interesting new sources of data for official statistics are cell phone data. Electronic media has defined the way of research human behavior rapidly over the last decade. As data storage and sensing technology progressed, electronic records now cover a diverse variety of human activities from localized data (phone) to open source contributions on Wikipedia and the Open Area Map. Electronic records now encompass the numerous fields of activity. The ad hoc vehicle network is a research community-based wireless technology for the implementation of intelligent transport applications. It is necessary to estimate migration flows and predict future trends to understand the causes and effects of migration and to enforce policies to deliver certain services. Several studies have exposed in this review with their datasets such as Credit card records (CCRs) provide deep insight into buying behavior; Call Details Records (CDRs) present new possibilities for under-implemented human mobility. Therefore, various forms of transportation and other travel behavior, various travel-related events such as "Home-Tour-Work -Tour-Tour” and the corresponding travel-related motifs have also been distinguished by the inclusion of land use details in the GIS data. This review also investigated migration trips residence between cities and inside a single city. The review concluded clear results for the adoption of the mentioned data, for example, mobile phone data (CDRs), because it is very useful as it provides real big data or real time big data without additional cost and is available in telecommunications companies, from which it is possible to analyze the movement of communities and deduce the activity of a particular city. In the future, there is a tendency to use this type of data from Korek Telecom Company in Iraq to the flow migration of Iraq governorates by using the gravity model. As well as, an attempt to study the conditions of cities and the movement of individuals in urban places to clarify the needs of the city in its need for new improvements.</p> Manhal K. Alqaysi Suhad Faisal Behadili Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2243 2261 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.36 Using Persistence Barcode to Show the Impact of Data Complexity on the Neural Network Architecture <p> It is so much noticeable that initialization of architectural parameters has a great impact on whole learnability stream so that knowing mathematical properties of dataset results in providing neural network architecture a better expressivity and capacity. In this paper, five random samples of the Volve field dataset were taken. Then a training set was specified and the persistent homology of the dataset was calculated to show impact of data complexity on selection of multilayer perceptron regressor (MLPR) architecture. By using the proposed method that provides a well-rounded strategy to compute data complexity. Our method is a compound algorithm composed of the t-SNE method, alpha-complexity algorithm, and a persistence barcode reading method to extract the Betti number of a dataset. After that, MLPR were trained using that dataset using a single hidden layer with increased hidden neurons. Then, increased both hidden layers and hidden neurons. Our empirical analysis has shown that the training efficiency of MLPR severely depends on its architecture’s ability to express the homology of the dataset<u>.</u></p> Labiba M. Alhelfi Hana M. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2262 2278 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.37 Medical Image Compression and Encryption Using Adaptive Arithmetic Coding, Quantization Technique and RSA in DWT Domain <p>Nowadays, the advances in information and communication technologies open the wide door to realize the digital world’s dream. Besides, within the clear scientific scope in all fields, especially the medical field, it has become necessary to harness all the scientific capabilities to serve people, especially in medical-related services. The medical images represent the basis of clinical diagnosis and the source of telehealth and teleconsultation processes. The exchange of these images can be subject to several challenges, such as transmission bandwidth, time delivery, fraud, tampering, modifying, privacy, and more. This paper will introduce an algorithm consisting a combination of compression and encryption techniques to meet such challenges in the medical image field. First, compression is done by applying the Adaptive Arithmetic Coding (AAC) technique and controllable frequency quantization process in the Discrete Wavelet Transform. After that, the encryption process is applied using RSA and SHA-256 algorithms to encrypt the compressed file and to create the digital signature. The performance analysis has shown that the algorithm can produce high compression ratio with good image quality, whereas range of PSNR near 45 dB and SIM is 0.88 as average values. For the security analysis, we have adopted data encryption and digital signature to guarantee the main data security services including integrity, authentication, and confidentiality, making the algorithm secure against passive or active attacks.</p> Nehad Hameed Hussein Maytham A. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2279 2296 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.38 Determination of the Level of IL-6 and Vaspin in Hyperthyroid Patients Treated with Carbimazole <p> The level of adipokines (interleukin-6 and vaspin) in hyperthyroid patients treated with carbimazole drug was determined. Eighty-five male and female participated in this study, with mean age from 20-70 years. They included: negative control group of thirty euthyroid persons represented group 1, twenty-five hyperthyroid patient (positive control) included in the second group and thirty hyperthyroid patients treated with carbimazole drug for one year or less comprised the third group. By vein puncture, blood was collected, and serum was isolated and preserved at –20 C. Adipokines (interleukin-6 and vaspin) were estimated by using ELISA method. The results demonstrated that the the increase of IL-6 level was highly significant (p&lt;0.01) in hyperthyroid group as compared with euthyroids. But the result showed a significant decrease in vaspin level in hyperthyroid group with treatment as compared with hyperthyroid group. However, there was a significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in the level of vaspin in hyperthyroid group with treatment in comparison to euthyroids. Also there was no significant difference in vaspin level in hyperthyroid group with treatment in comparison to hyperthyroid group. These findings suggest that the level of IL-6 increase in hyperthyroid patient and decrease after treatment with carbimazole drug for one year or less. Although vaspin level decreased in hyperthyroid patients, it decreased even after treatment with carbimazole drug for one year or less.</p> Dina khudhair Hussein Suha Abdul-Khaliq Al-Jowari Abbas Mahdi Rahmah Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1909 1917 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.5 Physiological and Immunological Study for the Effects of Onopordum Acanthium L. Seeds Oil in Male Rats Treated with CCL4 <p>In this study, the attention was focused on the protective role of seeds oil from local <em>Onopordum acanthium</em> L. (cotton thistle) against tissues damage in the liver, kidney and spleen in male albino rats. Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups including control group, rats were treated orally with seeds oil (0.5ml/kg), carbon tetrachloride (CCL<sub>4</sub>) injected group, and last group was intoxicated with CCL<sub>4</sub> and daily treated with seed oil (0.5ml/kg). After four weeks of the experiment, rats were anaesthetized and blood was taken directly by cardiac puncture for the evaluation of studied parameters. Samples of liver, kidneys and spleen were fixed in 10% formalin for histological studies.</p> <p> From the obtained results, no significant changes were seen in the estimated parameters in the group treated with oil only. In the group injected with CCL<sub>4</sub> and treated with oil extract, the level of serum lipids, liver enzymes, total serum bilirubin (TSB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBCs) were significantly reduced in comparison with untreated CCL4 intoxicated group. The toxicity of CCL<sub>4</sub> on the level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), renal function parameters, hemoglobin and body weight were ameliorated with seeds oil. These effective roles were further supported by the histopathological improvement of the liver, kidney and spleen tissues of rats against CCl<sub>4</sub>. Conclusion: from the results of this study, it can be concluded that the extracted oil from local Iraqi <em>Onopordum acanthium</em> L. seeds reduced the tissue damages with an improvement of biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters during the four weeks of the experiment. </p> Husni Abdulla Muhammad Malika Kassim Najeeb Amad M. Saleh Jubrail Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1918 1929 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.6 The Correlation Between the Persistence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates to Mupirocine and Toxin-Antitoxin Type II Genes <p> Under high concentrations of antibiotics, a fraction of the bacterial population exhibits a phenomenon known as persistence. Toxin- system (TA system) has been reported to be involved in the formation of E. coli, Mycobacterium, and S. aureus persisters. In this study, the ability of thirty Iraqi isolates of MRSA to form in vitro persister cells after exposure to three different antibiotics (Ceftriaxone 30 µg, Mecillinam 10 µg, and Mupirocin 20 µg) was examined by TD test. Additionally, efflux pump inhibitor [Fluphenazine 0.25 mg/ml] was combined with the antibiotic that triggered persister formation. The distribution of mazEF and yefM-yoeB (Type II TA system) in the tested isolates was detected by PCR. 91% of Mupirocin susceptible isolates formed persister cells.42% of the persistent level was reduced when Mupirocin was combined with the Fluphenazine. Genes for homologs of the yefM-yoeB and mazEF TA system were present in 100% of the tested isolates. The prevalence of these genes in the tested isolates suggested a link between persistence and the TA system. Further investigation is required to study the expression of these genes under stress conditions.</p> Wedean Al-Hadban Maysaa Adil Ali Nuha Kandala Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1930 1940 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.7 Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma: A Profile of Beta-defensins in Serum of Iraqi Patients <p>Human beta-defenses (hBDs) are antimicrobial peptides involved in innate immune protection, and their association with the risk of respiratory allergy has been proposed. Therefore, this study sought to evaluate this association in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma (AS) of Iraqi patients. A case-control study was conducted to investigate serum levels of hBD1, hBD2, hBD3, and hBD4 in 52 AR and 60 AS patients and 61 healthy controls (HC). The hBDs were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results revealed that median levels of hBD1, hBD2, and hBD3 were significantly elevated in the serum of AR and AS patients compared with HC (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01). Levels of hBD4 were also elevated in AR and AS patients but the differences were not significant. The levels of hBDs showed no significant differences between AR and AS patients. Age, gender, symptoms, and disease duration of patients influenced some of these variations. Logistic regression analysis indicated that hBD3 was the most important marker associated with the risk of AR and AS, and the estimated Odds ratios were 25.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.97-215.78; <em>p</em> = 0.012) and 32.20 (95% confidence interval: 2.49-415.89; <em>pc</em> = 0.032), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that hBD3 occupied a very good area under the curve in AR and AS (0.83 and 0.84, respectively). In conclusion, the role of hBDs in the pathogenesis of AR and AS was indicated. In this context, hBD3 was the most important, and its association with the risk of developing AR and AS was suggested.</p> Marwa B. Ahmed Ali H. Ad’hiah Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1941 1954 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.8 The Prevalence of Integron Classes Genes Among A. Baumannii Isolates <p><em> Acinetobacter baumannii</em> has been recently classified as a major threat to public health because it has resistant to almost all antibiotics and there are many reasons that are responsible for conferring this feature to <em>A. baumannii</em>. One of these reasons is integrons so in this study we show the role of the integrons in providing resistance to some antibiotics. A number of 60 isolates were collected from different clinical sources of patients who were admitted to Baghdad hospitals and all isolates were diagnosed using biochemical tests and confirmed using Chrom-ager culture media, and Vitek 2 compact system. The antibiotic susceptibility test was determined during this study using Kirby-Bauer method and the results of susceptibility demonstrate that these bacteria are responsible for providing resistance to Amikacin, Trimethoprim, Piperacillin, Cefepime, Tetracycline, Ampicillin-sulbactam, Imipenem, and levofloxacin. All isolates show high resistance to trimethoprim and low resistance to tetracycline. The presence of integrons in <em>A. baumannii</em> was detected using conventional polymerase chain reactions. The results showed integron class I was found in all 60 isolates with a percentage (100%) while integron class II was found only in 7 isolates with a percentage (11.6%) and the results of detection showed integron class III are not found in the examined isolates. This study conclude that all <em>A. baumnnii</em> isolates had the strongest resistance to various antibiotics, and the class 1 integron appeared to be the most dominant class among class II and III .</p> Suhad S Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1955 1960 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.9 Estimation of reservoir properties based on core plugs, lithofacies, and well logs for Nahr Umr Formation in Noor oilfield, southern Iraq <p>The Nahr Umr Formation, one of the most important Cretaceous formations and one of the main generating reservoirs in southern Iraq and neighboring regions, was chosen to study and estimate its petrophysical properties using core plugs, lithofacies, and well logs from five wells in the Noor oilfield. Reservoir properties and facies analyses are used to divide the Nahr Umr formation into two-member (limestone in the upper part and main sandstone in the lower). Limestone members are characterized by low reservoir properties related to low effective porosity and permeability while the main sandstone member is considered as a reservoir. Four lithofacies were recognized in the main sandstone member of the Nahr Umr Formation according to petrographic observation with gamma-ray. They are well-sorted quartz arenite sandstone, poorly sorted Quartz arenite sandstone, Sandy shale, and Shale Lithofacies.</p> <p>Calculation of the various reservoir properties (shale volume, effective porosity, permeability, and water saturation) using the (Interactive Petrophysics v3.5) program and linking them with the lithofacies by computer processed interpretation (CPI) of available of the available wells. Divided the sandstone member into three units are A, B, and C. Each unit consists of many reservoir sandstone subunits separated by shale and streaks of limestone. Average reservoir properties of units A and B are good to very good related to high porosity, permeability, and economy hydrocarbon saturation (low water saturation). While these properties are decreased in unit C. The Sandston member of borehole No-5 was the best reservoir characterization, especially in the thickness of the reservoir units and the low shale content.</p> Muntadher AL-Nafie Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.22 Geotechnical Assessment of Soil at the Campus Site of College of Science, University of Diyala <p>In this study, some physical and mechanical properties of soil samples collected from the campus site of College of Science, University of Diyalahave been evaluated. All laboratory tests were performed according to the standards of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The test results showed that the range of soil water content <em>w</em>was (13.89%-16.34%) with an average of 15.44%. The specific gravity range was (2.58-2.77) with an average of 2.66. The range of Liquid Limit LL was (26.20-35.20%) with an average of 32.22%.The range of Plastic Limit PL was (18.63-23.24%) with average of 21.06%. The range of Plasticity Index was (7.57-12.42) with an average of 11.61. Based on USCS classifications, the soil can be considered as fine-grained soil type CL (CL is inorganic clay soil of low to medium plasticity). Liquidity Index LI values were ranged from 0.002 to 0.560 while Consistency Index CI ranged from 0.271 to 0.998 indicating a plastic state. The average optimum water OWC content and maximum dry density MDD calculated from Standard Proctor Compaction test were 10.36% and 1.79g/cm<sup>3</sup>, respectively. Shear test results revealed that the cohesion strength range was (5-10 Kg/m<sup>2</sup>) with an average of 7.8 Kg/m<sup>2</sup>, and the angle of internal friction range was (25-30<sup>o</sup>) with an average of 29.4<sup>o</sup>. The measured values of angle of internal friction are within the range of CL soil. However, the cohesion strength is relatively low as cohesion of clay soil is affected by different factors such water content and clay content. The compression index derived from consolidation test was ranged from 0.03 to 0.25, and the calculated values of void ratio (0.94-1.04) and porosity (0.48-0.51) are within the range of clay soils. Physical and mechanical properties presented in the current study are useful for future engineering works scheduled at the campus site of College of Science,University of Diyala.</p> Asem Hassan Kareem Khwedim Abdalratha Sahaab Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.23 Corrosion - Scaling Potentially of Domestic Water Pipelines and Evaluate the Applicability of Raw Water Sources in Basrah, IRAQ <p> As a result of changes in the chemical properties of the Shatt al-Arab River, especially in the last decade, as well as the lack of rainfall and the effect of seawater intrusion into the Shatt al-Arab, this study was conducted to investigate the possible changes in the water pipelines like corrosive and scaling which Shatt al-Arab River is the source of water supply for domestic use. Domestic water samples were collected from 10 various locations in Basrah to study the water's tendency to be corrosive or form scales along the pipelines. The Langelier Index, Ryznar Index, Larson-Skold Index, and Saturation Index were used to determine the corrosivity potential of water based on physical and chemical parameters. Most domestic water sources tend to form scales based on the Langelier Saturation Index, Ryznar Index, and Saturation Index. According to the evaluation, the Langelier Index ranged from -1.71 to 1.98, Ryznar Index was between 4.45 and 10.53, Larson-Skold Index was between 1.13(rainwater) 62.70 (Dibdabba Water) and Saturation Index was ranged -1.31 to 1.24. The results indicated that the rainwater and some groundwater samples are moderately corrosive. The water of all the water resources sampled in this study ranged from balanced to mild scaling. The Larson-Skold Index, on the other hand, shows that all domestic water samples are corrosive. The corrosion and scaling potential of natural water sources collected from groundwater, river water, and rainwater has also been determined.</p> Wasan S. Al-Qurnawi Hussein B. Ghalib Mazin A. A. Alabadi Alabadi1Adana B. AL Hawash Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2089 2102 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.24 Optical Properties of Manufactured Mirrors Using DC Plasma Magnetron Sputtering Technique <p> This paper defines a method for sputtering high strength, extremely conductive silver mirrors on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 20<sup>o</sup> to 22<sup>o</sup> C. The silver coated layer thicknesses in this work ranges from 7.5 to 16.1 nm using sputtering time from 10 to 30 min at power 25 W, 13.7 to 29.2 nm for time 10 to 30 min at 50 W, 15.7 to 26.4 nm for time 10 to 30 min at 75 W and 13.8 to 31.1 nm for time 10 to 30 min at 100 W. The optimum values of pressure and electrode gape for plasma sputtering system are 0.1 mbar and 5 cm respectively. The effect of DC sputtering power, sputtering duration or (sputtering time), and thickness on optical properties was investigated using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The ultraviolet absorption of all coated layers was high, while the visible absorption was low. The transmittance is decrease with increase sputtering time and sputtering power. Highest values of reflection in visible region at 100 W and 20, 25 and 30 min are 46% to 97%. High value of band gap at 100 and 30 min while lower value at 25 W and 10 min.</p> Hussien Ala’a Sadeq Waleed Ibrahim Yaseen Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2297 2306 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.39 Effect of Urban Expansion Indices Change by (R.S.) on Height of Convective Radix Layer around Baghdad Airport (Iraq) <p> Change in structure of land surface can affect atmospheric boundary layer and formation of internal boundary layer. This will change shear stresses and turbulent boundary layer. Change in low level wind shear and turbulent can affect air craft performance and has potentially adverse effects on flight safety during landing and taking-off stages. In this study, change in land area around Baghdad Airport and its effects on structure of boundary layer and radix layer through summer season (July from years 1985 and 2014) is examined. The examination is done through atmospheric data of radiosonde (at altitude more than 1500 m) and remote sensing by Landsat 5 and 8 images (circular region around airport has radius 3.250 km and the airport is considered the center of this circle). From analysis of hourly wind speed and temperature profile with height observed by radiosonde, change in convective radix layer can be determined at this period resulted from change structure of boundary layer depending on characteristic of landcover used in supervised classification. Building area increases from 18% in 1985 to 41% in 2014. These results enforced by positive values of built up index BI, that showed a decreases in 2014. All these elements changed convective radix layer from less than 500 m in summer 1985 to more than 700 m. There is a large fluctuation in radix layer height depended on convective and friction velocity at 2014 data. Thus indirect change in structure of convective layer will affect navigation movement of Baghdad International Airport. </p> Ahmed F. Hassoon Nagham T. Ibraheem Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2307 2319 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.40 Gamma-Ray Shielding Effectiveness of Clay and Boron Doped Clay Material at Different Thicknesses <p> In this work, the gamma-ray shielding parameters of red clay and boron-doped red clay with different sample thicknesses are theoretically and experimentally reported. These shielding parameters are considered at a photon energy of 0.662 MeV emitted from <sup>137</sup>Cs. The theoretical calculations are demonstrated using the XCom software program, while a scintillation detector, NaI(TI), with an efficiency of 98% is used to attain the experimental results of the mass attenuation coefficient of the prepared samples. The acquired results show that the boron-doped clay delivers a higher mass attenuation coefficient as compared to those of pure clay. Additionally, the mass attenuation coefficient exhibits an increasing behavior with the sample thickness increment.</p> Ahmed Salih Sameer Akram Mohammed Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1961 1970 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.10 Transverse Direction Loading Effect on the Elasticity and Strength of Micro and Nano Silica Oxide Composites <p> Using three-point bending experiments, the effect of the particle size of SiO<sub>2</sub> on the flexural properties of epoxy composites was investigated. Young modulus and flexural strength were studied for different weight percentage of filler (2,4,6,8 and 10) wt%.The size of SiO<sub>2 </sub>particles varied from micro (100um) to nano (12nm) .</p> <p>Flexural strength and Young modul were found to increase with the filler content, but when the particle size decreased to the nanoscale, the Young module increased. Flexural strength was higher for microcomposites than nanocomposites.</p> Asmma Shawqy Khaleel Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1971 1976 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.11 Effects of the Changes in the Neutron Number of Isotonic Nuclei on the Tow-Component Partial Level Density Formula Corrected for Pairing in Pre-Equilibrium Reactions <p>Ericson’s formula describes the partial level density (PLD) of pre-equilibrium reactions and corrections. PLD with pairing correction can be calculated using four methods, namely, pairing, improved pairing, exact Pauli and back shift energy corrections. The variations in the PLD values of each of the four formulas of strontium (<sup>88</sup>Sr), Yttrium (<sup>89</sup>Y) and Zirconium (<sup>90</sup>Zr) isotones have been examined. Results shows that the PLD values that use pairing and improved pairing corrections do not vary for different isotones. However, a small change in PLD values is observed when exact Pauli correction and back shift energy were utilised. The change in the PLD values using back shift energy correction is bigger than the values obtained by using exact Pauli correction. Therefore, the use of back shift formula is recommended because it results in noticeable changes with any small increase in mass number.</p> J. F. Mohammad A. D. Salloum H. A. Al-Jabbar Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1977 1981 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.12 Stopping power of Hetero nuclear di-cluster ions from partial-wave analysis based on semi classical phase shifts <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>We apply a semi classical partial-wave scattering method based on the induced density approach (IDA) model. For ion electron scattering, the transport cross section is used to calculate the energy loss. This method yields a non-perturbative exemplification of energy loss, bridging the difference among classical and quantal representations. The focus of this work is the interaction of hetero nuclear di-cluster (He-H) ions with a free gas. The results show three kinds of stopping power in (a.u) (cluster stopping power, self-stopping power and correlated stopping power) of hetero nuclear di-cluster ions (He-H) with velocity at different atomic di-cluster distances at different densities and temperatures. We find that Bragg’s peak of stopping power is directly proportional to density and temperatures and inversely with atomic di-cluster distance . The equations in present work are programmed in fortran-90 for numerical calculations.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nadher A. Salman Khalid A. Ahmed Baida M. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.13 High optical correction system based 800x600 analog spatial light modulator <p> In this work, a modern optical system based on modulation technique is constructed to achieve the retrieval of optical defects and distortions of the images behind dark barriers. A 800x600 analog spatial light modulator (SLM) is used in this technique with a 632.8nm He-Ne laser, a circular metallic mesh (CMM) is imaged and disturbed and then dealing with our system. The SLM was confirmed for irregularity improvement such as variable diffracted optical element (DOE) control. The obtained results showed that the effect of distortion has been treated and reduced to be minimum by controlling phase and amplitude modulation of the scattered wave front utilizing the SLM. The obtained images showed identical to the original image with limitation in the intensity distribution due to the pixelated structure of SLM. This technique represents the most appropriate solution to the problem of dispersion in images with the lowest costs and best results. The most important applications of this technology are the ability of providing high-resolution imaging where viewing through a deviant medium is inevitable.</p> Falah A. Bida Muayad Hanoon Salman Hayder A. Naser Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1992 1999 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.14 Diffuse Thyroid Uptake in FDG PET/ CT Scan cCan Predict Subclinical Thyroid Disorders <p> Background: <sup>18</sup>F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) has established itself in the field of oncology and it is useful in the initial staging and follow-up of a variety of malignancies. Significant thyroid uptake is often identified as an accidental finding on whole-body positron emission tomography for non-thyroid disease.</p> <p>Aim of this study: to investigate the effect of <sup>18</sup>F-FDG on thyroid gland function after performing PET scan compared to thyroid function prior to scan.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: 43 subjects who had an <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET scan as part of a cancer screening program participated in this study. All cancers are diagnosed using <sup>18</sup>F-FDG, except for prostate cancer, brain cancer and neuro-endocrine tumors, which are diagnosed using Ga-68. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured.</p> <p>Results: Clinical information and results of thyroid function tests were available for 43 patients. Twenty- three out of 43 patients (53.48%) had abnormally high TSH levels with incident hypothyroidism, while 20 out of 43 patients (46.51%) had abnormally low TSH levels with incident hyperthyroidism, and the association was significant (p &lt;0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion: Thyroid hormone abnormality is strongly associated with the degree of diffuse thyroid uptake on <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET. As a result, an autoimmune process could be the most likely pathological cause of diffuse thyroid uptake.</p> Mustafa R. Hasan Satar M. Kadam Samar I. Essa Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2000 2005 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.15 Fabrication and Characterization of High-Performance Crosslinked PVA/ PMDA Doped with H2SO4 <p> In the present study, pure Poly(viny1 alcohol) (PVA) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) cross linked PVA with (0,5,10,15 and 20)wt.% and doped with different molarity (5,9)M of sulfuric acid (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>) were prepared by the solution casting method and were characterized as a function of frequency in the range (1-100) KHz.</p> <p> The FT-IR results showed that the strong broad band observed at 3738.05 and 3857.63 cm<sup>-1</sup> may be assigned to O-H stretching due to the strong hydrogen bond of intramolecular and intermolecular type in PVA film. When PVA is doped with 5M and 9M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>,<sub> </sub>a new peak was noticed at 813 cm<sup>-1</sup>, this peak may be due to the formation of hydrogen bond between the carbonyl (C=O) group of PVA and the H<sup>+</sup> ion from the acid.</p> <p> As the PMDA concentration increases, the peak intensity of the O–H band 3738.05 cm<sup>−1</sup> gradually decreases due to the reaction of more –OH groups of the PVA molecules with the –COOH group. Hence, it is difficult for the crosslinked PVA polymer chains to pack and form crystal regions, so the crosslinked PVA polymer chains become more flexible.</p> <p> The a.c. conductivity increases with the increase of frequency. FTIR spectra specified that the chemical reaction did occur between the PVA and the acid, therefore hydrogen ion (H<sup>+</sup>) can easily be separated from the carbonyl group and become free to move which explains proton conductivity of PVA.</p> <p> The increase of PMDA concentration has increased <em>free volume</em> and <em>ionic mobility</em><em> </em>in the film with increasing cross-linkages.</p> <p> Dielectric constant decreases with increasing H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> molarity for every frequency.</p> Rusul J. Abdulnabi Aseel A. Kareem Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2006 2016 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.16 Raman Scattering Enhancement by silver Nanostructures Prepared by Electrical Exploding Wire Technique <p>This project aims to fabricate nanostructures (AgNPS) using the electrical exploding wire (EEW) technique using Rhodamine 6G dye as the probe molecule, investigate the effect of AgNPS on the absorption spectra and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities, and advance using porous silicon as an active substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the structural properties of the nanostructures (AgNPs). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to investigate surface morphology. A double beam UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to analyze the mixed R6G laser dye(of concentration 1x M) absorption spectra with the nanostructures AgNPS (of concentration 24x M). A sunshine Raman microscope device (the objective lens used was (50x)). was used to analyze R6G combined with nanostructures Raman spectra. All samples have shown SERS activity that increased with increasing the hot spots. The SERS enhancement factor for R6G dye(of 1x10<sup>-6</sup> M concentration) when mixed with (AgNPS) nanostructures has reached to(2.48 x 10<sup>6</sup>) and the lowest detection limit reached to (1 x 10<sup>-14 </sup>M) at the wave number (1652 cm<sup>-1</sup>) using excited laser source (λexc. = 532nm)</p> FatimaFatimah Jumaah Moaen Hammad R. Humud Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2017 2024 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.17 Reducing the Purification Period of Congo Red Dye Solution By Using Co-Exposure to Ultraviolet and Green Laser as A Photocatalysit Source <p> Attempts were made over the years to achieve economic and easy methods for water purification. This could well save time, cost, and earn a good process quality for many countries. This study aims to enhance the purification process parameters for Congo red dye polluted water and introduce a developed methodology with an impact on many associated parameters such as the time for water purification process. The research proposes a method to achieve this time reduction by mixing gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) (prepared by chemical reduction method) with Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) (prepared by sol-gel techniques). The resulting mixture is incorporated into PVA host to synthesize a hard disk used as a purification disk to treat the pollutant water. The pollutant solution was exposed to different light sources to complete the photocatalyst process. In this respect, sunlight, UV ligh, green laser, blue laser, and combined UV light and green laser were used as a photocatalysis sources. Experimental work was conducted to adjust the right mixture and the right combination of light sources. Results were recorded accordingly and showed a significant reduction in the purification time with less than half the standard period when the conventional purification process is used.</p> Saja. H. Hasan Sarmed. S. Mahdi Alawadi Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2025 2038 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.18 Determination of Electrons Temperature and Density For Ag, Zn, and Cu metals using Plasma jet System at atmospheric pressure <p> Under atmospheric pressure, an argon plasma stream was sustained and its plasma characteristics were examined. The emission spectra of plasma created in a plasma jet system using argon gas were observed for three metals (Ag, Zn, and Cu) for the anode and varied flow rates ranging from 1–4 L/min. at constant voltage, and normal atmospheric pressure. The spectral lines of excited Ar, Ag, Zn, and Cu species were identified at a wavelength of (650–900) nm .The Debye length, sphere, and temperature of an electron are all measured. Optical emission spectrometer (OES) equipment was used to capture the spectrum produced by the plasma at various argon gas flow rates.The temperature and density of the electron (T<sub>e</sub>) and (n<sub>e</sub>) ranges for Ar-gas, Ag, Zn, and Cu-anode increased as the stream pace of argon gas to the plasma made by the release current (D.C.) expanded.(1.241- 1.473)eV and (1.93 x10<sup>18</sup>–6.38 x10<sup>18 </sup>) cm<sup>-3 </sup>, (1.187– 1.245) eV and (4.32 x10<sup>16</sup>–6.23 x10<sup>16 </sup>) cm<sup>-3 </sup>, (1.374 -1.631)eV and (4.01 x10<sup>18</sup> – 12.1 x10<sup>18</sup> ) cm<sup>-3 </sup>respectively . The intensity of spectral lines, on the other hand, increased.</p> Ghaith H. Jihad Kadhim A. Aadim Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2039 2047 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.19 Study of Some Plasma Characteristics in Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) System <p> In this present paper, an experimental study of some plasma characteristics in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system using several variables, such as different frequencies and using two different electrodes metals(aluminium (Al) and copper (Cu)), is represented. The discharge plasma was produced by an AC power supply source of 6 and 7 kHz frequencies for the nitrogen gas spectrum and for two different electrodes metals(Al and Cu). Optical emission spectrometer was used to study plasma properties (such as electron temperature ( ), electron number density ( ), Debye length ( ), and plasma frequency ( )). In addition, images were analysed for the plasma emission intensity at atmospheric air pressure.</p> Murad M. Kadhim Qusay A. Abbas Mohammed R. Abdulameer Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2048 2056 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.20 The Effect of Cold Plasma on pH, Creatine, and the Concentration of the Most Trace Elements in Human's Nails by Using X-ray Fluorescent Method <p> The aim of this study is to determine the effect of cold plasma on nails pH, creatine levels and the accumulative of some trace elements in humans nails. Creatine levels in the blood, as well as pH and trace elements, were measured before and after (1, 2) months of plasma exposure in both gender (men and women) between the ages of 22 and 25 years. Nails are exposed to cold plasma with a voltage of (175 volts) and (2 gas flow). After one month of exposure, there was no significant change in the levels of all parameters, but after 2 months, the concentration of creatine and pH had reached a near- neutral value. In both men and women, calcium concentration increased and showed a positive response to cold plasma, while the vanadium element concentration did not change over time and remained stable at (7.3×10-4). The results clearly suggest that men respond more than women. The best results were obtained after two-month period of exposure.</p> Atheer Q. Muryoush Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2057 2062 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.21 Intensive and Explanatory Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between Inorganic Phosphate Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fresh and Canned Fruit Juices <p> The inorganic phosphate content and antioxidant activity of fresh fruit juices and canned fruit juices commonly consumed in Bahrain were compared. The fruits considered in this study were kiwi, guava, black grape, strawberry, apple, and pineapple. The inorganic phosphate content of the juices was determined by a colorimetric method using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Among the fresh juices, the highest inorganic phosphate content was measured for black grape juice (17.330 ±0.068 mg/L), and among the canned juices, the highest inorganic phosphate was measured for black grape canned juice too (16.020 ±0.141 mg/L, brand 3). The antioxidant activity was determined in-vitro by measuring the percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the juices. Among the fresh juices, the highest antioxidant activity was measured for fresh guava juice (95.98 ±0.15%). Among the canned juices, the highest antioxidant was measured for black grape canned juice (two brands: 88.69 ±0.05 and 90.49 ±0.12%). According to the inferential statistical analysis (normality assumption tests and one-way ANOVA), no statistically significant correlation was found between inorganic phosphate content and antioxidant activity (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.279, p-value = 0.263) at a 5% significance level.</p> Fadheela Al-Salman Ali Ali Redha Zahra Al-Zaimoor Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1860 1873 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.1 Screening, Extraction, and Quantification of Melatonin in Waste of Some Plants <p>Environmental pollution is one of the world's biggest problems, and plant waste is one of its causes. For this reason, we have tried in this work to take advantage of this waste and benefit from it instead of being one of the pollutants. Seven dry waste from different plants (bitter orange peels, pomegranate peels, bitter orange leaves, Ziziphus leaves, albizia leaves, waste of black tea, and zahidi date palm fibers) were tested as cheap source of melatonin )MLT), which is a very important indoleamine compound. Throughout the current study, this hormone was extracted from these plants’ waste (which are considered as environmental pollutants) by applying different modified methods, whereby melatonin was identified and quantified by the HPLC-fluorescence system at The National Center for Drug Control and Researches (NCD). The results indicated the presence of different concentrations of melatonin in this waste. Bitter orange peels are a rich source of this hormone (868.868 µg melatonin /gm dried peel) in comparison to the other tested waste, followed by the waste of black tea (164.333 µg melatonin /gm waste). The results also showed the presence of trace concentrations of melatonin in Ziziphus leaves and Zahid date palms’ fibers. This work provides a cheap source of MLT, it is a recycling method for plant waste.</p> Hathama Razooki Hasan Jwan Abdulmohsin Zainulabdeen Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1874 1884 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.2 Metal Complexes of Bis (2,6-diamine pyridine 2,5-hexanedione) Macrocyclic Schiff-Base Ligand: Preparation, Characterization and thermal study <p> New series of Schiff base macrocyclic complexes have been prepared through a new chemical approach. Firstly, ligand Bis (2,6-diamine pyridine 2,5-hexanedione (DP-HD) prepared via reacting of 2,6-diamine pyridine (DP) with 2,5-hexanedione(HD) in molar ration (1DP:1HD). The complexes of this ligand include Mn (II), Fe (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) as central metal ions also prepared with a molar ratio of (1 ligand:1 metal ion). Metals chloride was used as raw materials for this preparation. A variety of spectral and physical techniques were applied to characterize the macrocyclic complexes such as 1H-NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, CHN analysis, conductivity, Atomic absorption and magnetic susceptibility. Depending on spectral and magnetic measurements, the suggested geometrical shapes of these complexes were reported. FT-IR spectroscopy recorded the coordination sites based on the ligand's main group bands that could shift to a lower frequency. Finally, thermal stability has been investigated for ligands and their complexes. While the thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) approved the stability of these compounds if compared to their ligands only.</p> Assim A. Sabah Anwer M. Ameen Abdulgany Al-Daher Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1885 1893 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.3 Removing of Copper ions from Industrial Wastewater Using Graphene oxide/Chitosan Nanocomposite <p> A simple method was used to create a graphene oxide/chitosan (GO/CS) nanocomposite, which was then used in batch experiments to remove copper ions from industrial wastewater under various conditions of initial concentration, adsorbent weight, pH, and contact time. Maximum removal percentage equal to 99.4 % for initial copper ion concentration of 5x10<sup>-2</sup> mol/L at pH 6, time 75 min, temperature 25 °C, and adsorbing dose 0.1 g. The pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm adequately fit the experimental results. The process was spontaneous and endothermic, according to thermodynamic studies.</p> Hakim H. Kadhim Khulood A. Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 1894 1908 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.4 New Results of Normed Approach Space <p> In this work, we introduce a new convergence formula. We also define cluster point , δ-Cauchy sequence, δ-convergent, δ-completeness , and define sequentially contraction in approach space. In addition, we prove the contraction condition is necessary and sufficient to get the function is sequentially contraction as well as we put a new structure for the norm in the approach space which is called approach –Banach space, we discuss the normed approach space with uniform condition is a Hausdorff space. Also, we prove a normed approach space is complete if and only if the metric generated from approach space is complete as well as prove every finite –dimensional approach normed space is δ-complete. We prove several results and properties in this field.</p> Ruaa Kadhim Abbas Boushra Youssif Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2103 2113 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.25 On Controllability of Impulsive Fractional Integro-differential Nonlocal System with State <p> This paper is concerned with the controllability of a nonlinear impulsive fractional integro-differential nonlocal control system with state-dependent delay in a Banach space. At first, we introduce a mild solution for the control system by using fractional calculus and probability density function. Under sufficient conditions, the results are obtained by means of semigroup theory and the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the main results.</p> Naseif J. Al-Jawari Abdul Khaleq O. Mazeel Khudair O. Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2114 2139 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.26 The Optimal Control Problem for Triple Nonlinear Parabolic Boundary Value Problem with State Vector Constraints <p> In this paper, the classical continuous triple optimal control problem (CCTOCP) for the triple nonlinear parabolic boundary value problem (TNLPBVP) with state vector constraints (SVCs) is studied. The solvability theorem for the classical continuous triple optimal control vector CCTOCV with the SVCs is stated and proved. This is done under suitable conditions. The mathematical formulation of the adjoint triple boundary value problem (ATHBVP) associated with TNLPBVP is discovered. The Fréchet derivative of the Hamiltonian" is derived. Under suitable conditions, theorems of necessary and sufficient conditions for the optimality of the TNLPBVP with the SVCs are stated and proved. </p> Jamil A. Ali Al-Hawasy Thekaa M. Rasheed Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2140 2147 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.27 Quasi-Radical Semiprime Submodules <p> In this paper, we introduce the concept of a quasi-radical semi prime submodule. Throughout this work, we assume that is a commutative ring with identity and is a left unitary R- module. A proper submodule of is called a quasi-radical semi prime submodule (for short Q-rad-semiprime), if for , ,and then . Where is the intersection of all prime submodules of .</p> Omar M Al-Ragab Nuhad S. Al-Mothafar Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2148 2154 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.28 Estimates of Coefficient for Certain Subclasses of k-Fold Symmetric Bi-Univalent Functions <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>In the present paper, the authors introduce and investigates two new subclasses and,&nbsp; of the class k-fold bi-univalent functions in the open unit disk. The initial coefficients for all of the functions that belong to them were determined, as well as the coefficients for functions that belong to a field determining these coefficients requires a complicated process. The bounds for the initial coefficients and are contained among the remaining results in our analysis are obtained. In addition, some specific special improver results for the related classes are provided.</p> Abdul Rahman S. Juma Ali Al-Fayadh Nihad H. Shehab Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2155 2163 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.29 F-J-semi Regular Modules <p> Let be a ring with identity and let be a left R-module. If is a proper submodule of and , is called --semi regular element in , If there exists a decoposition such that is projective submodule of and . The aim of this paper is to introduce properties of F-J-semi regular module. In particular, its characterizations are given. Furthermore, we introduce the concepts of Jacobson hollow semi regular module and --semiregular module. Finally, many results of Jacobson hollow semi regular module and --semiregular module are presented.</p> Lewaa R. Turki Wasan Khalid Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2164 2172 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.30 The Dynamics of the Aquatic Food Chain System in the Contaminated Environment <p> In this paper, the aquatic food chain model, consisting of Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Fish, in the contaminated environment is proposed and studied. Modified Leslie–Gower model with Holling type IV functional response are used to describe the growth of Fish and the food transition throughout the food chain, respectively. The toxic substance affects directly the Phytoplankton and indirectly the other species. The local stability analysis of all possible equilibrium points is done. The persistence conditions of the model are established. The basin of attraction for each point is specified using the Lyapunov function. Bifurcation analysis near the coexistence equilibrium point is investigated. Detecting the existence of chaos is carried out using bifurcation diagrams. Numerical simulation shows that the food chain has rich dynamics including chaos. Moreover, the existence of toxic substances works as a stabilizing factor in the model.</p> Roaa Hatem Talib May Mohammed Helal Raid Kamel Naji Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2173 2193 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.31 Full Transformation Semigroup of A Free Left S-Act on N-Generators <p> It is well known that the wreath product is the endmorphism monoid of a free <em>S</em>-act with <em>n</em>-generators. If <em>S</em> is a trivial semigroup then is isomorphic to . The extension for to where <strong> </strong>is an independen<strong>t </strong>algebra has been investigated. In particular, we consider <strong> </strong>is to be , where is a free left <em>S</em>-act of <em>n</em>-generators. The eventual goal of this paper is to show that is an endomorphism monoid of a free left <em>S</em>-act of <em>n</em>-generators and to prove that is embedded in the wreath product .</p> Asawer Al-Aadhami Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Science 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 2194 2202 10.24996/ijs.2022.63.5.32