Iraqi Journal of Science <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer-reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self-financed by applying fees on the researcher's work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> en-US (Iraqi Journal of Science) (SAAD AL-MOMEN) Tue, 28 Feb 2023 07:59:53 +0000 OJS 60 The Performance of V2O5:Ag Nanoparticles as Thin Film and Bulk Pellet Sensor for NO2 and NH3 Detection <p><strong> </strong>A comparison of gas sensing performance of V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:Ag nanoparticles as thin film and as bulk pellet toward NO<sub>2</sub> and NH<sub>3</sub> is presented. V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:Ag nanoparticles thin films were deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation method on glass substrates while the pellets were prepared by powder technology. XRD patterns of thin film and pellet were polycrystalline with an orthorhombic structure. The value of average grain size is about 60 nm. The morphological properties of the samples have been distinguished by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) which indicated that the films showed homogeneous surfaces morphology and contained pores between the grains. Sensing results showed a various response to NO<sub>2</sub> and NH<sub>3 </sub>gases. It was found that the sensitivity of thin films sensor is superior to that of the pellets sensor.</p> Haidar J. Abdul-Ameer, Muthafar F. AL-Hilli, Fuad T. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Transfer Factor of Radionuclides from Soil to Leafy Vegetables in Iraq Using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy <p><strong> </strong>The activity concentration of natural radioactivity levels, of artificial <em>cesium and</em> transfer factor from soil to plants in agricultural areas at Al- Yusiefya region <em>were determined</em> by using NaI (Tl) detector spectrometer. Ten species of leafy plants have been selected: Spinach, Parsley, Watercress, Lettuce, Rashad, Radish, Green onion, Turnip green, Green beet and Mint. The mean activity concentrations of <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th, <sup>40</sup>K and <sup>137</sup>Cs in leafy vegetable samples were 12.4±3.8, 14.8±4.7, 283±93 and 1.06±0.99 Bg/kg, and in soil samples were 15.9±4.3, 16.1±5.2, 298.5±3.9, and 1.11±0.37 Bq/kg. The radiation hazard indices were evaluated (radium equivalent, external hazard index, annual effective dose, absorbed dose rate) were within the permissible values except for excess lifetime cancer risk. The mean transfer factor values of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th, <sup>40</sup>K, and <sup>137</sup>Cs were 0.89±0.2, 0.9±0.2 , 1.02±0.3, and 0.77±0.25. The leafy vegetable are safe for consumption and the studied area does not pose a considerable radiological threat .</p> <p> </p> Athraa Naji Jameel Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the Effect of pH on the Optical Properties of the CdTe Quantum Dots <p> This research aims to study the effect of different pH values on the growth of CdTe nanoparticles during specific times. The reflux method has been used as a method for preparing CdTe quantum dots. A difference in absorbance and intensities of peaks at pH 10.5 and 11.5 was observed during the reaction period. The growth rate of the NPs (nucleation) was irregular at low pH values. Optical examinations showed that the best growth rate of NPs was at pH value 12.</p> Husham. N. Noori, Ameer F. Abdulameer Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Photonic Crystal Fiber Pollution Sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance <p> In this work, a pollution-sensitive Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology is designed and implemented for sensing refractive indices and concentrations of polluted water . The overall construction of the sensor is achieved by splicing short lengths of PCF (ESM-12) solid core on one side with traditional multimode fiber (MMF) and depositing a gold nanofilm of 50nm thickness on the end of the PCF sensor. The PCF- SPR experiment was carried out with various samples of polluted water including(distilled water, draining water, dirty pond water, chemical water, salty water and oiled water). The location of the resonant wavelength peaks is seen to move to longer wavelengths (red shift) as the refractive index increases due to the transfer of maximum energy from the reflected power of the light guided through the fiber to the surface plasmons. The experimental results show that the highest sensitivity reached 4202.6nm/RIU for oiled water, the signal to noise ratio was 0.625, the resolution was 2.4*10<sup>-5 </sup>RIU, and the figure of merit was 22.8. The prepared sensor exhibited excellent performance features, making it an excellent element for detecting water pollutants.</p> Fatima Fadhil Abbas, Soudad S. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Properties of Ground-State of 17,19,20,24,26F using the Wave Functions of Harmonic-Oscillator and Spherical Hankel Functions <p> The nuclear size radii, density distributions and elastic electron scattering charge form factors for Fluorine isotopes (<sup>17,19,20,24,26</sup>F) were studied using the radial wave functions (WF) of harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential and free mean field described by spherical Hankel functions (SHF) for the core and the valence parts, respectively for all aforementioned isotopes. The parameters for HO potential (size parameter ) and SHF were chosen to regenerate the available experimental size radii. It was found that using spherical Hankel functions in our work improved the calculated results quantities in comparison with empirical data. </p> Saif Ali J. Khalaf; Arkan R. Ridha Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study Antibacterial Activity of Crude Capparis spinosa L. Extracts Against Helicobacter pylori Infection and Determine Their Bioactive Compounds <p>The antibacterial activity of <em>Capparis spinosa</em> L. extracts obtained from Baghdad was evaluated against six clinical bacteria isolates of <em>Helicobacter pylori</em>. The results presented in this work demonstrated that the leaves extract showed a significant effect against bacteria as compared to the root and fruit extracts at 100 mg/ml concentration, with inhibition zone ranging from 12.0 to 30.7 mm in each bacteria strain. The end results of GC-MS analysis indicated that the ethanol extracts of caper have a lot of active chemical compounds, including twenty-five, eighty-two and sixty-eight phytoconstituent compounds, that are distinguished in the extracts of roots, leaves and fruits with <em>C. spinosa</em> L. respectively. In addition, the high area % revealed in each extracts were: 1-methyl-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid 35.77%, prolin, N-methyl-, butyl ester 12, 63% and (23S)-ethylcholest-5-en-3.beta.-ol 19.12% respectively.</p> Manar F. Jassim Al-Khafagi, Dina Yousif Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Biodegradation of Oil-Based Plastic Wastes by Bacteria Isolated from Fish Breeding Tanks <p> Several studies have shown that certain microbes, mainly bacteria may have the ability to digest plastic wastes. The goal of this study was to see how well <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Staphylococcus lentus</em>, <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em>, <em>Sphingomonas paucimobilis</em> and <em>Kocuria paedia</em> degrade three kinds of oil-based plastics: low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer sheets. The experiment was conducted for 30 days under laboratory conditions with occasional shaking at 180 rpm and 32°C. Biodegradation was measured in terms of weight loss.. Accordingto IR Spectroscopy, the C-H stretch band at 2920cm-1 improved as a result of bacterial degradation of polyethylene. The most affected polymers were LDPE and PVC films. While PS films were the least affected polymers. <em>B. subtilis</em> was shown to be the most successful of the five bacterial species, whereas<em> K. paedia</em> was determined to be the least effective.</p> Eman A. Al-Imara, Baqer A. Al-Mayyahi, Mujtaba A. T. Al-Ankush, Sabah M. Al- Shatty Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Artemisinin Efficacy on iNOS Production in U937 Cell-line Infected with Leishmania donovani <p> Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most-serious parasitic illness after malaria, is currently endemic in more than 88 countries. Need for new anti-leishmanial compounds is currently being taken into consideration by researchers due to resistance and lack of effective vaccinations. This research was conducted to find out more about the effect of artemisinin (ART). ART was examined <em>in vitro</em> promastigotes stages and <em>ex vivo </em>amastigotes stages of the Iraqi strain of <em>Leishmania donovani</em> in U937 cell line after 24, 48 and 27 hours using MTT assay. In addition, the level of macrophage nitric oxide (NO) was measured using Griess assay in U937 cell line. The results of promastigotes viability percentage were less than 50 %, where the IC<sub>50</sub> was 43.8, 37.9 and 36.6 µM respectively. Similar cytotoxic effect of ART was observed against amastigote forms, where the cell viability was 36.11, 40.2 and 37.4 µM respectively, after the three times of follow up.. Furthermore, by using Griess assay the level of nitrite in infected macrophages was measured. The results after 48hr were 6.58 in high concentration and 1.22 in lower concentration. However, considering the absence of a significant difference, the observed concentrations are still higher than the control when compared to Griess assay.. These findings demonstrated that ART has a cytotoxic effect on both forms of <em>L. donovani.</em> It also increased iNOS production in infected macrophages which can define artemisinin therapeutic efficacy against <em>L. donovani</em> infection.</p> Suhair Dakhil Neamah, Hayder Z. Ali, Mohammad M.F. Al-Halbosiy Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Allele Frequency of Uromodulin Gene rs13333226 and rs13333144 in a Sample of Iraqi Patients on Dialysis <p> Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health concern around the world. UMOD gene variants are linked to a higher incidence of hypertension and CKD in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the role of uromodulin rs13333226 and rs13333144 genes association with chronic kidney disease.The study samples were divided into two groups. The first group included 100patient samples and 70 chosen among them were under the dialysis and had kidney failure aged between 18-88 years old. The second group included 30 samples from healthy individuals who were used as a control. One of the ways used to identify the genotype is the tetra-primers amplification refractory mutation system–polymerase chain reaction (ARMS–PCR). Regarding the results of SNP (rs13333226 and rs13333144), the genotypes GG (OR=150.3), and AA (OR=0.01) for rs13333226. The genotypes GG (OR=0.02) and TT(OR=140.4) for rs13333144 when comparing between patients and control (P≤ 0.01), they were observed when the odds ratio is less than 1 means they are preventive factors, while OR more than 1 means the risk increase (P≤ 0.01). It was concluded that there was an association between SNP (rs13333226 and rs13333144) and uromodulin in kidney diseases. Where genotype GG) rs13333226) and TT (rs13333144) represents a risk factor and AA rs13333226 and GG rs13333144 represents a protective factor.</p> Ahmed Saad Albayati, Suha Abdulkhaliq Al Jowari Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Ability of Staphylococcus aureus to Establish Biofilm on Acrylic, Plastic, and Metallic Denture Materials <p><em> Staphylococcus aureus</em> is a common pathogenic agent due to its ability to cause various types of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to sever systemic diseases. One of the most virulence factors of this bacterium is its ability to from biofilms on solid surfaces by anchoring the planktonic cells and by producing a protective layer of extra polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is controlled through many genes. The most important ones are <em>icaA</em> and <em>icaD.</em> Dentures are prosthetic devices that are made of different materials to replace lost teeth. The aim of this study is to examine the ability of different types of denture materials to support the biofilm formation of <em>S. aureus</em> at phenotypic level by detecting bacterial growth on them using crystal violet and scanning electron microscope, as well as genotypic level through detection and estimation of gene <em>icaA</em> and <em>icaD </em>expression. Our findings showed that the denture materials do support biofilm formation and there is elevation in gene expression of <em>icaA</em> and <em>icaD</em>.</p> Rafid Salih Mohammed, Harith Jabbar Fahad Al-Mathkhury Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Efficacy of Antifungal Medications and Plant Extracts Against Candida albicans Isolated from Vulvovaginitis Women <p> Fungus <em>Candida</em> spp. causes vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) which is a fungal infection of the genital mucosa. This investigation was on the isolation of <em>Candida albicans</em> from cervical-vulvovaginal patients in Erbil hospitals, Kurdistan region, Iraq and its identification is done using phenotypic and molecular approaches. Then biofilm production was detected through phenotypic tests such as Congo red agar (CRA) and disclosure virulence genes, agglutinin-like sequence(<em>ALS1</em>) and hyphal wall protein (<em>HWP1</em>). The susceptibilities of antifungal medications and plant extracts against <em>C. albicans</em> isolates were then assessed. This study showed low susceptibilities values to all tested antifungals such as econazole (12mm), miconazole (12mm) and nystatin (14mm) in the disc diffusion method with the exception of ketoconazole (20mm) which had high susceptibilities values. In this research each ethanol pomegranates peel extracts (EPPE) (200mg/ml), aquatic pomegranates peel extracts (APPE) (200mg/ml) and pomegranate molasses (PM) were used. In the agar well diffusion method, <em>C. albicans</em> showed low susceptibilities values against (PM) (8mm). However, it showed high susceptibilities values against (EPPE) (18mm) when compared to each of the antifungal agents: econazole, miconazole and nystatin. Results of the study showed that pomegranate peel could be new therapeutic promisingekey ingredient in antifungal medications development. It is an alternate antifungal medication which is useful for <em>C. albicans</em> treatment.</p> Nareen Qadr Faqe Abdulla, Hero M. Ismael Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Performance Metrics Level of Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Backpropagation Algorithms in Detecting Diabetes Mellitus Disease <p>Diabetes is a disease caused by high sugar levels. Currently, diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the number of people with diabetes worldwide. The increase in diabetes is caused by the delay in establishing the diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, an initial action is needed as a solution that requires the most appropriate and accurate data mining to manage diabetes mellitus. The algorithms used are artificial neural network algorithms, namely Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Backpropagation. This research aims to compare the two algorithms to find which algorithm can produce high accuracy, and determine which algorithm is more accurate in detecting diabetes mellitus. Several stages were involved in this research, including data collection, data pre-processing, data processing, and evaluation models. This research shows that the Restricted Boltzmann Machine algorithm achieved accuracy of 82.02% while the Backpropagation algorithm reached87.01% when using the normalization method. Thus, the diabetes mellitus dataset used can be said to have a better value for the backpropagation algorithm than the restricted Boltzmann machine algorithm.</p> Dimas Aryo Anggoro, Sri Hajiati Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Benchmarking Framework for COVID-19 Classification Machine Learning Method Based on Fuzzy Decision by Opinion Score Method <p> Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, has been announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), which results in the collapsing of the healthcare systems in several countries around the globe. Machine learning (ML) methods are one of the most utilized approaches in artificial intelligence (AI) to classify COVID-19 images. However, there are many machine-learning methods used to classify COVID-19. The question is: which machine learning method is best over multi-criteria evaluation? Therefore, this research presents benchmarking of COVID-19 machine learning methods, which is recognized as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In the recent century, the trend of developing different MCDM approaches has been raised based on different perspectives; however, the latest one, namely, the fuzzy decision by opinion score method that was produced in 2020, has efficiently been able to solve some existing issues that other methods could not manage to solve. because of the multiple criteria decision-making problem and because some criteria have a conflict problem. The methodology of this research was divided into two main stages. The first stage related to identifying the decision matrix used eight different ML methods on chest X-ray (CXR) images and extracted a new decision matrix so as to assess the ML methods. The second stage related to FDOSM was utilized to solve the multiple criteria decision-making problems. The results of this research are as follows: (1) The individual benchmarking results of three decision makers are nearly identical; however, among all the used ML methods, neural networks (NN) achieved the best results. (2) The results of the benchmarking group are comparable, and the neural network machine learning method is the best among the used methods. (3) The final rank is more logical and closest to the decision-makers' opinion. (4) Significant differences among groups' scores are shown by our validation results, which indicate the authenticity of our results. Finally, this research presents many benefits, especially for hospitals and medical clinics, with a view to speeding up the diagnosis of patients suffering from COVID-19 using the best machine learning method.</p> Mahmood M. Salih, M. A. Ahmed, Baidaa Al-Bander, Kahlan F. Hasan, Moceheb Lazam Shuwandy, Z.T. Al-Qaysi Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hybrid Techniques with Support Vector Machine for Improving Artifact Ultrasound Images <p> The most common artifacts in ultrasound (US) imaging are reverberation and comet-tail. These are multiple reflection echoing the interface that causing them, and result in ghost echoes in the ultrasound image. A method to reduce these unwanted artifacts using a Otsu thresholding to find region of interest (reflection echoes) and output applied to median filter to remove noise. The developed method significantly reduced the magnitude of the reverberation and comet-tail artifacts. Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm is most suitable for hyperplane differentiate. For that, we use image enhancement, extraction of feature, region of interest, Otsu thresholding, and finally classification image datasets to normal or abnormal image. Because of the machine’s training for both types of images, the machine can now predict whether a new image is an abnormal image or a normal image. As a result, it reduced medical work for many checkups and other things. Our proposed method shows the correct classification result by more than 89%.</p> Ayat Ali Al-Jaburi, Ahlam Hanoon Al-Sudani Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Secure Private Key Recovery Based on DNA Bio-Cryptography for Blockchain <p> The existence of the Internet, networking, and cloud computing support a wide range of new technologies. Blockchain is one of these technologies; this increases the interest of researchers who are concerned with providing a safe environment for the circulation of important information via the Internet. Maintaining solidity and integrity of a blockchain’s transactions is an important issue, which must always be borne in mind. Transactions in blockchain are based on use of public and private keys asymmetric cryptography. This work proposes usage of users’ DNA as a supporting technology for storing and recovering their keys in case those keys are lost — as an effective bio-cryptographic recovery method. The RSA private key is responsible for maintaining the authenticity of the blocks’ wallets throughout any transaction related to any block of the blockchain. This framework can be used for a wide range of applications such as student registration systems at universities: in order to prevent the forging of student graduation certificates. The experimental results demonstrated robustness of the proposed solution, using a number of key sizes. The effectiveness of our approach is compared to that of elliptic curve cryptography keys. Our approach shows that the security and authentication needed for blockchain technology can be accomplished using DNA combined with an RSA private key. On the other hand, the standard EC cryptography shows poor performance against our suggested method as demonstrated in the discussion section.</p> Asia Ali Salman Al-karkhi, Nidaa Flaih Hassan, Raghad Abdulaali Azeez Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Data Hiding in 3D Model Based on Surface Properties <p><strong> </strong>Data hiding strategies have recently gained popularity in different fields; Digital watermark technology was developed for hiding copyright information in the image visually or invisibly. Today, 3D model technology has the potential to alter the field because it allows for the production of sophisticated structures and forms that were previously impossible to achieve. In this paper, a new watermarking method for the 3D model is presented. The proposed method is based on the geometrical and topology properties of the 3D model surface to increase the security. The geometrical properties are based on computing the mean curvature for a surface and topology based on the number of edges around each vertex, the vertices that have negative mean curvature and an odd number of edges around the vertex are selected for embedding. Selecting the vertex with negative mean curvature value means the vertex located in the deep region of the surface, so it not noticeable change to human eyes. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the PSNR, and CF are used as a measurement to evaluate the visibility and robustness of the 3D watermarked model. The experimental results have shown the proposed algorithm has good imperceptibility where the PSNR reach up to 44.41 and robustness against attack where the CF is one in many cases.</p> Nashwan Alsalam Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Temporal Resolution of Climatic Factors on Agriculture Degradation in Southern Baghdad by Applying Remote Sensing Data <p> The climate changes had been recognized as one of the major factors responsible for land degradation, which has a significant impact on diverse aspects. The present study aims to estimate how the climate change can influence land degradation in the south areas of Baghdad province (Al-Rasheed, Al-Mahmudiyah, Al-Yusufiyah, Al-Madaen, and Al-Latifiyah). The Satellite Landsat-8 OLI and satellite Landsat-5 TM sensor imagery were used to extent land degradation for the period (2010-2019). ArcGIS V.10.4 was applied to manage and analysis the satellite image dataset, including the use of climate factors data from the European Center for Climate Forecasts (ECMWF) by reanalyzes and extraction datasets. To achieve work objectives, many ground data were collected, including the temperature, rain precipitation, evaporation, and relative humidity from 30 meteorological monitoring stations. These data help us to utilize the interpolation methods for the extraction process of contour lines maps, to be scientific indicators of the relationship between climatic factors and satellite images classifications, involving the spectral indicators of the vegetation cover and water bodies. The results showed the agriculture degradation through the decreasing of vegetation cover rate from 56.57% in (2010) to 43.43% in )2019 (. This deterioration is thought to be related to climate changes with other factors such as water shortage that was 0.52 and 0.44, respectively, the greatest temperature reading was (24.57), the greatest precipitation was (0.21), the greatest relative humidity was (60.73), and vapor rate (-0.2) for the studied period.</p> Taif Adil Dhamin, Ebtesam F. Khanjer, Fouad K. Mashee Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Digital Change Detection for Low Resolution Satellite Images in Weathering Estimation <p> The detection and estimation of weathering conditions have become a very important daily necessity in our life. For this purpose, several satellites of low resolution imagery were launched by the weathering and environmental agencies. The important weather paremeters are temperuter, wind direction, velocity, clould and humidity, etc. The low resolution images often deal with large-scale phenomena and the interpretation and projection of the produced data requires continuous development of tools and criteria. In this paper, the low spatial resolution data generated by the moderate resolution imaging <u>s</u>pectroradiometer (MODIS) were used to monitor the cloud density and direction above Iraq and its neighboring countries for the period from 14-12-2021 to 23-12-2021. The MODIS reflectance and surface temperature (HDF format) data were used and processed to achieve the purpose of this research. The reflectance data were projected according to a sinusoidal system due to the presence of three Earth zones distributions (37, 38, and 39, N). The cloud density was estimated from the digital values and the wind direction was estimated from the bands animation. The direction of wind for the cloudy condition was from the North-East. The digital data processing included data preparation and selection, georeference (adding a projection system), features extraction, and displaying the final results. All data were evaluated using ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images, ver. 4.5.)</p> Alaa S. Mahdi Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Detection and Recognition of Car Plates in Parking Lots at Baghdad University <p> A simple and smart algorithm was presented to recognize car plates in parking at the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Iraq. The study consists of recording video clips of all cars parked in the selected area. The studied camera heights were1m and 2m, and the video clips were 19 and 30. Images were extracted from the video clip to be used for training data for the cascade method. Haar classification was used to detect license plates after the training step. Viola-jones algorithm was applied to the output of Haar’s data for both camera heights (1m and 2m). The accuracy was calculated for all data with different weather conditions and local time recoding. The accuracy is 100% for all data in this study.</p> <p> </p> Noor M. Hashem, Heba Kh. Abbas, Haidar J. Mohamad Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Using of Different Satellite-Derived Indices to Detect the Spatiotemporal Changes of the Al-Razzaza Lake, Iraq <p> Remote sensing and GIS applications (Geoinformatics tools) involve a wide range of techniques for providing a solution for future water resources management and offer an excellent means to improve knowledge of sustainable planning. Al-Razzaza is the second largest lake in Iraq; it is a common source of fishery fortune and floodwater reservoir in southwestern Iraq. In recent years, the lake faced a noticeable amount of desiccation, which is considered a threat to the biodiversity and wildlife of the lake. The study aimed to detect the Lake's spatiotemporal changes from 1988 to 2018. Multi satellite-derived indices were investigated for the extracting of the lake water body. Results showed that the lake volume decreased by about 30% from 1990-2002, while it was about 70% from 1990-2014. A slight rise in the lake area was recorded in 2016 by about 40% compared with 2014. The accurate measurement was achieved to find a method showing the spatiotemporal aspects of lake changes.</p> Ahmed Kadhim Al-lami, Raad A. Abbood, Ali A. Al Maliki, Hussain M. Hussain, Abdulkadhim J. Alabidi Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of miR-146a Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus <p> Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial chronic autoimmune disease, with a wide spectrum of effect. The main feature of the disease is the production of a wide variety of autoantibodies as a result of immune tolerance loss. The work aims to evaluate the <em>miRNA-146a</em> gene polymorphism potential association with disease activity and chronicity changes in SLE patients. The study included 100 SLE patients and 50 matched controls. The systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) was assessed. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of <em>miR-146a</em> gene (rs2910164) polymorphism was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing technique in patients and control. 100 SLE patients were all females and with a mean of age 31.3 ± 10 years (16-63years) and disease duration of 5.8 ± 3.7years (1 month to 15 years). Most clinical manifestations presented in patients were 52% malar rash, 45% oral ulcers, 54% arthritis, and 45% neurological disorder. Proteinuria, ESR, creatinine and AST were significantly higher (65% vs. 10%, 4.1±36.1 vs. 11.8±9.9 mm/hr, 0.62±0.11 vs. 0.70±0.14 mg/dl and 25.37±26.50 vs. 17.23±3.58 U/L respectively) while the PLT was significantly lower (231.9±88.8 vs. 282.3±67.3 103/mL) (p&lt; 0.001) among SLE patients as compared to control. There were no significant variations in all study parameters across <em>miRNA-146a</em> genotypes (p greater than 0.05). There was a significant association of the homozygote GG genotype (66.7%) with the active SLE state (p=0.013). In conclusion, the results suggest a risk effect for the female gender and adult at a young age in the etiology of SLE. The <em>miRNA-146a</em> GG genotype is associated with increasing the disease activity and <em>miRNA-146a</em> polymorphism is not associated with the risk in SLE.</p> Ruaa Hameed Abdulridha, Asmaa Mohammed Saud, Mohammed Hadi Alosami Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Diode Laser on Viability and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans Isolated From Dental Caries <p><em>Streptococcus mutans</em> is one of the major cariogenic microbial flora. In an attempt to determine the mutagenic effect of diode laser on the viability and antibiotic sensitivity of this bacteria; A total of 30 samples were collected from dental caries. The isolates were identified using <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">by</span> conventional identification methods and confirmed using VITEK2 system. Twenty-one isolates were recorded as <em>Streptococcus spp </em>and ten of them were identified as <em>Streptococcus mutans.</em> Antibiotic susceptibility profile for <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> isolates against ten antibiotics was tested. The results revealed that all the isolates were resistant to cefixime and cephalothin, nine of them were resistant to erythromycin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid, seven isolates were resistant to tetracycline and bacitracin, whereas all isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The effect of the diode laser on the isolates (S5 and S10) was tested at different time intervals (1, 2, 5, and 10) min. The viability of <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> isolates was affected by the obvious change in the behaviour of the bacteria from resistance to sensitivity after Laser exposure </p> Bushra H. Saleh, Reem N. Ibrahim, Dhafar N. Al-Ugaili Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Antimicrobial Resistance Genes of Listeria Monocytogenes Isolated From Industrial and Clinical Samples in Iraq <p> Multi-drug resistance in <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> is considered a major public health problem associated with foodborne outbreaks and causes high hospitalization and mortality rates. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistant genes among <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> isolated from meat and clinical samples. Phenotypically, the isolates were tested for their susceptibility against the 12 most commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and human therapy via the disc diffusion method, while conventional PCR was performed to study the presence or absence of 14 resistance genes predicted in <em>L. monocytogenes</em> isolates. The study established that 30(66.66%) of <em>L. monocytogenes</em> isolates showed phenotypic multi-drug resistance against at least three antimicrobial classes. Furthermore, high resistance frequencies were reported among commonly used antibiotics for listeriosis therapy. The present study revealed that the investigated isolates show resistance against tetracycline 33(73.3%), ampicillin 29(64.4%), penicillin 28(62.2%), erythromycin 26(57.8%), and gentamycin, clindamycin and vancomycin 24(53.3% each). Of the 45 <em>L. monocytogenes</em> isolates studied, 37(82.2%) were phenotypically susceptible to meropenem, followed by ciprofloxacin 36(80.0%) and SXT 30(66.7%). PCR amplification of antimicrobial resistance genes established the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in all studied <em>L. monocytogenes </em>isolates. Notably, 41(91.11%) of these isolates exhibited more than five resistance genes. Surprisingly, penA and ampC were detected in all <em>L. monocytogenes</em> strains 45(100%), followed by ermB 44(97.8%), tetA 38(84.4%), tetG 32(71.1%), and vanB 30(66.7%). Moreover, vanA 22(48.9%) and tetB 18(40.0%) were detected less frequently. The lowest incidences of resistance genes were observed in <em>L. monocytogenes</em> carrying tetD 4(8.9%) and cmlA 6(13.3%). In conclusion, the study demonstrates that the majority of <em>L. monocytogenes</em> from human and meat samples displayed a high index of resistance to a variety of agents used for clinical listeriosis treatment adding further burden to the existing global antibiotic resistance problem.</p> Azad Mohammed Taher Al-Brefkani Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation Between Gene Expression of Interferon Regulatory Factor-5 and Disease Activity Index in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Iraqi Patients <p> Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by elevated levels of circulating anti-nuclear autoantibodies and interferon-alpha (INFs-α). Interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF5) plays an important role in the induction of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and participates in the SLE pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the role of IRF5 gene expression levels in a sample of SLE Iraqi patients and its correlation with disease activity, and to identify its diagnostic ability as a biomarker reflecting disease activity. Blood samples were taken from 45 participants diagnosed with SLE cases classified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. They were scored via the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) to assess the disease activity and according to it, they were subdivided into “SLE (I) group” (SLEDAI-2k ≤5), and “SLE (II) group” (SLEDAI-2k &gt;5), as well as age and gender matched healthy control group. RNA was isolated from whole blood samples and gene expression levels of IRF5 were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results revealed that the expression levels of the IRF5 gene were significantly increased in SLE (I) and SLE (II) patient groups compared with the control group (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05, and <em>p</em>&lt;0.01) respectively, as well as higher in SLE (II) group than the SLE (I) group (<em>p</em>&lt;0.01). Moreover, the expression levels of IRF5 were found to be related positively and significantly to the disease activity index in both SLE patient groups. The analysis of receiver operator curves (ROC) for gene expression levels of IRF5 in SLE (II) group showed a perfect accuracy to distinguish between SLE patients and healthy individuals (AUC=0.989, sensitivity= 95.5%, and specificity= 88.0%). However, in SLE (I) group showed a good accuracy to discriminate between SLE patients and healthy individuals. (AUC=0.769, sensitivity= 69.6%, and specificity= 80.0%). The correlation between gene expression levels of IRF5 with other parameters revealed that a significant positive correlation was found with uric acid and ALP in SLE (I) group, while in SLE (II) group with urea, creatinine, and uric acid. Our conclusion suggests that the up-regulation of IRF5 gene expression levels correlates positively with disease activity in SLE patients reflecting the possibility of using it as an immunological biomarker for diagnosis, and monitoring the disease flare.</p> Zainab M. Dahham, Namir I. A. Haddad Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Levels of Some Metal Contents in the Soil and Leafy Vegetables Collected From Al-Qanat Highway/ Baghdad City <p> The aim of the present study is to estimate the levels of some essential and non-essential metals content of soil and seven leafy vegetable species, in the field 30m away from the Al-Qanat highway in Baghdad using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results showed that soil and leafy vegetables had higher levels of macro elements, and that Ca in rocket and purslane was the highest. The average content of trace elements in soil and leafy vegetables has been close to the minimum than the range of permissible limits recommended by WHO and FAO/WHO except Fe, Cr and Ni in soil have exceeded the concentration of the threshold limit (13728.8 mg/kg Dw for Fe, 183.361mg/kg Dw for Cr, and 124.01mg/kg Dw for Ni) value as well for leafy vegetables, the concentration of Fe (573.29 mg/kg Dw in spinach and 540.41 mg/kg Dw in rocket) and zinc (183.52 mg/kg Dw in mallow, and 181.19 mg/kg Dw in purslane) exceeded the permissible limits.</p> <p>The values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations in soil have been within the range of permissible limits recommended by WHO while in leafy vegetables higher levels of Pb (2.58 mg/kg Dw), and Cd (2.2 mg/kg Dw), were found in the rocket, and fenugreek, respectively. Also, higher levels of Sr were found in the rocket (592.42 mg/kg Dw) and purslane (560.34 mg/kg Dw) as well as Al in spinach (186.55 mg/kg Dw). In addition, P, K, Mg (purslane), Zn (rocket, purslane, mallow), Cd (grapevine, fenugreek), and Sr (rocket, purslane) accumulated the most with the transfer factor (TF) (&gt; 1.0), followed by Ca, Mg, Fe, Co, Cu, Se, Mn, Zn, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, Hg and Sr (0.01–1.0), while Cr, and Al had the lowest accumulation (&lt; 0.01).</p> Nada A.Kadhim, Nuha Nihad A. Aburahma Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pairwise Neutrosophic Simply b-Open Set via Neutrosophic Bi-topological Spaces <p>In this article an attempt has been made to procure the concept of pairwise neutrosophic simply open set, pairwise neutrosophic simply continuous mapping, pairwise neutrosophic simply open mapping, pairwise neutrosophic simply compactness, pairwise neutrosophic simply <em>b</em>-open set, pairwise neutrosophic simply <em>b</em>-continuous mapping, pairwise neutrosophic simply <em>b</em>-open mapping and pairwise neutrosophic simply <em>b</em>-compactness via neutrosophic bi-topological spaces (in short NBTS). Besides, we furnish few illustrative examples on them via NBTS. Further, we investigate some basic properties of them, and formulate several results on NBTSs.</p> Suman Das, Binod Chandra Tripathy Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Classical Continuous Optimal Control for Quaternary parabolic boundary value problem <p> The aim of this paper is to study the quaternary classical continuous optimal control for a quaternary linear parabolic boundary value problems(QLPBVPs). The existence and uniqueness theorem of the continuous quaternary state vector solution for the weak form of the QLPBVPs with given quaternary classical continuous control vector (QCCCV) is stated and proved via the Galerkin Method. In addition, the existence theorem of a quaternary classical continuous optimal control vector governinig by the QLPBVPs is stated and demonstrated. The Fréchet derivative for the cost function is derived. Finally, the necessary conditions for the optimality theorem of the proposed problem is stated and demonstrated.</p> Jamil A. Ali Al-Hawasy, Wissam A. Abdul-Hussien Al-Anbaki Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Applications of the Finite Operator〖 〗_3 E_2 (■(q^(-N),a,b@c,d);q,-fθ) for the Polynomials B_n (a,b,c,d,f,x,y|q) <p> In this work, polynomials and the finite <em>q</em>-exponential operator are constructed. The operator is used to combine an operator proof of the generating function with its extension, Mehler's formula with its extension and Roger's formula for the polynomials . The generating function with its extension, Mehler's formula with its extension and Rogers formula for Al-Salam-Carlitz polynomials are deduced by giving special values to polynomials .</p> Rasha H. Jaber, Husam L. Saad Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nonoscillatory Properties of Fourth Order Nonlinear Neutral Differential equation <p> In this paper, the oscillatory and nonoscillatory qualities for every solution of fourth-order neutral delay equation are discussed. Some conditions are established to ensure that all solutions are either oscillatory or approach to zero as . Two examples are provided to demonstrate the obtained findings<strong>.</strong></p> Intidhar Zamil Mushtt, Dunya Mohamed Hameed, Hussain Ali Mohamad Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Extended Eigenvalues and Eigenoperators of Some Weighted Shift Operators <p> A complex number is called an extended eigenvalue for an operator on a Hilbert space H if there exists a nonzero operator such that: such is called an extended eigenoperator corresponding to. The goal of this paper is to calculate extended eigenvalues and extended eigenoperators for the weighted unilateral (Forward and Backward) shift operators. We also find an extended eigenvalues for weighted bilateral shift operator. Moreover, the closedness of extended eigenvalues for the weighted unilateral (Forward and Backward) shift operators under multiplication is proven.</p> Kareem M. Hussein, Buthainah A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 On the Estimation of Stress-Strength Model Reliability Parameter of Power Rayleigh Distribution <p> The aim of this paper is to estimate a single reliability system (R = P, Z &gt; W) with a strength Z subjected to a stress W in a stress-strength model that follows a power Rayleigh distribution. It proposes, generates and examines eight methods and techniques for estimating distribution parameters and reliability functions. These methods are the maximum likelihood estimation(MLE), the exact moment estimation (EMME), the percentile estimation (PE), the least-squares estimation (LSE), the weighted least squares estimation (WLSE) and three shrinkage estimation methods (sh1) (sh2) (sh3). We also use the mean square error (MSE) Bias and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) to compare the estimation methods. Both theoretical comparison, simulation and real data are used. The results in light of this distribution show the advantage of the proposed methods.</p> Abdulrhaman A.J. Ahmed, Feras Sh. M. Batah Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Soft Bornological Group Acts on Soft Bornological Set <p><strong> </strong>In this paper, we introduce the notation of the soft bornological group to solve the problem of boundedness for the soft group. We combine soft set theory with bornology space to produce a new structure which is called soft bornological group. So that both the product and inverse maps are soft bounded. As well as, we study the actions of the soft bornological group on the soft bornological sets. The aim soft bornological set is to partition into orbital classes by acting soft bornological group on the soft bornological set. In addition, we explain the centralizer, normalizer, and stabilizer in details. The main important results are to prove that the product of soft bornological groups is soft bornological group and the action for different elements are the same actions.</p> Ashwaq F. Abdal, Anwar N. Imran, Alaa A. Najm aldin, Amal O. Elewi Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Orthogonal Generalized Higher k-Derivation on Semi Prime Г-Rings <p>The definition of orthogonal generalized higher k-derivation is examined in this paper and we introduced some of its related results.</p> Hajer Hamed Abd-Ali, Salah Mehdi Salih Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Studying The Necessary Optimality Conditions and Approximates a Class of Sum Two Caputo–Katugampola Derivatives for FOCPs <p> In this paper, the necessary optimality conditions are studied and derived for a new class of the sum of two Caputo–Katugampola fractional derivatives of orders (α, ρ) and( β,ρ) with fixed the final boundary conditions. In the second study, the approximation of the left Caputo-Katugampola fractional derivative was obtained by using the shifted Chebyshev polynomials. We also use the Clenshaw and Curtis formula to approximate the integral from -1 to 1. Further, we find the critical points using the Rayleigh–Ritz method. The obtained approximation of the left fractional Caputo-Katugampola derivatives was added to the algorithm applied to the illustrative example so that we obtained the approximate results for the state variable x(t) and the control variable u(t) by assumed α, β ∈ (0,1) with different values for two periods of ρ &gt; 0 (ρ∈ (0,1) , ρ∈ (1,2)). In both cases, the algorithm steps show the accuracy and efficiency of the approximate results of the proposed system.</p> <p>An approximation to the fractal derivative was obtained and then added to the algorithm applied to the illustrative example so that we obtained the approximate results for the state variable x (t) and the control variable u (t) by imposing different values for two periods of ρ &gt; 0. In the first case we take ρ∈ (</p> Moataz Abbas Holel, Sameer Qasim Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Neutrosophic d-Filter of d-Algebra <p> In this article, an attempt has been made to introduce the concept of Neutrosophic <em>d</em>-Filter and Neutrosophic Prime <em>d</em>-Filter of <em>d</em>-Algebra by generalizing the notion of Intuitionistic Fuzzy <em>d</em>-Filter of <em>d</em>-Algebra. Besides, we establish different properties of them. Further, we study several relations on this notion from the point of view of Neutrosophic <em>d</em>-Algebra.</p> <p> </p> Rakhal Das, Suman Das, Carlos Granados, Ali Khalid Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Peristaltic Flow of Williamson Fluid through a Flexible Channel <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of an elastic wall on the peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid between two concentric cylinders, where the inner tube is cylindrical with an inelastic wall and the outer wall is a regular elastic sine wave. For this problem, cylindrical coordinates are used with a short wavelength relative to channel width for its length, as well as the governing equations of Williamson fluid in the Navier-Stokes equations. The results evaluated using the Mathematica software program. The Mathematica program used by entering the various data for the parameters, where the program shows the graphs, then the effect of these parameters became clear and the results mentioned in the conclusion. Williamson fluid peristaltic flow through an elastic conduit is the subject of this investigation. For a number of significant elements, such as velocity distribution, stress and wave frame streamlines, graphic findings are supplied at the end of the article.</p> Dheia Al-Khafajy , Walaa N. Al-Delfi Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 On the Existence and Oscillatory Solutions of Multiple Delay Differential Equation <p> In this paper, we introduce new conditions to prove that the existence and boundedness of the solution by convergent sequences and convergent series. The theorem of Krasnoselskii, Lebesgue’s dominated convergence theorem and fixed point theorem are used to get some sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions. Furthermore, we get sufficient conditions to guarantee the oscillatory property for all solutions in this class of equations. An illustrative example is included as an application to the main results.</p> Bashar Ahmed Jawad Sharba, Aqeel Falih Jaddoa Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modified Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods to Assess Classification Methods <p> During the last few decades, many academic and professional groups gave attention to adopting the multi-criteria decision-making methods in a variety of contexts for decision-making that are given to the diversity and sophistication of their selections. Five different classification methods are tested and assessed in this paper. Each has its own set of five attribute selection approaches. By using the multi-criteria decision-making procedures, these data can be used to rate options. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is designed utilizing a modified fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (MFAHP) to compute the weight alternatives for TOPSIS in order to obtain the confidence value of each classifier for each feature selection approach individually. Defuzzification of the fuzzy values to obtain the final criteria weights, the rank function is used. The modification of TOPSIS is assessed in tests using five prediction models (alternatives) and six performance measurements (criteria) to analyze the German credit data sets. Overall the results of the experiment show that the proposed strategies are successful in credit approval data.</p> Fadhaa O. Sameer Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Uranium Concentration and Calculated Doses of Radiation Resulting From the Tap and Bottled Drinking Water in Babylon - middle Iraq <p> In this study, uranium concentrations were evaluated and the annual effective dose was calculated from the consumption of bottled water and tap water used for drinking in Babylon, middle Iraq. Uranium isotopes (<sup>238</sup>U, <sup>234</sup>U, <sup>235</sup>U) were determined for all samples collected using the phosphorylation analyzer technique represented device (KPA). Forty-four samples were collected to cover almost all districts and regions of Babylon. Thirty tap water samples were collected from residential neighborhoods, with 14 samples from local brand bottled water. The results show that the uranium concentrations in the tap water samples ranged from 1.66 μg.L<sup>-1</sup> to 2.64 μg.L<sup>-1</sup>, with an average of 2.12 μg.L<sup>-1</sup>, and the bottled water samples varied from 1.06 μg.L<sup>-1 </sup>to 1.82 μg.L<sup>-1</sup>, with an average 1.47 μg.L<sup>-1</sup>. This means that the uranium contents in tap and bottled water samples are less than 15 μg.L<sup>-1</sup> and 30 μg.L<sup>-1</sup>, which are safe values of the WHO, and the EPA respectively. The annual effective dose values of <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>234</sup>U, and <sup>235</sup>U for adult consumption of tap water range between 0.67, 0.0.33, 0.74 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup> to 1.07, 0.052, 1.18 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup> with averages of 0.86, 0.042, 0.95 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Their values in bottled water ranged from 0.43, 0.020, 0.47 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup> to 0.73, 0.035, 0.81 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup>, with an average of 0.59, 0.029, 0.65 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The value of the annual effective dose of total uranium isotopes in tap water samples ranged between 1.45 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup> to 2.30 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup> with an average of 0.85 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup>, whereas in bottled water varied from 0.92 to 1.58 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup> with an average of 1.28 μSv.y<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Muhsen K. Hasson, Qusai Yaseen Al–Kubaisi, Kamal Kareem Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Morphotectonic Analysis of Wadi Al-Batin Alluvial Fan, South of Iraq, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques <p>This research aimed to know the tectonic activity of the Wadi Al-Batin alluvial fan using hydrological and morphotectonic analyses. Wadi Al-Batin alluvial fan is deposited from Wadi Al-Rimah in Saudi Arabia, which extended to Iraqi and Kuwait international boundaries. The longitudinal and transverse faults that characterize this region were common. The Abu- Jir-Euphrates faults have a significant impact on the region. The faults zone consists of several NW- SE trending faults running from the Rutba in western Iraq to the south along the Euphrates through Kuwait and meeting the Al-Batin fault to the Jal Al-Zor fault. The Hydromorphometric analysis of the present fan shows five watersheds having asymmetry shapes, more elongated and activity from the elongation ratio and asymmetry factor values. In contrast, transverse topographic symmetry and mountain front sinuosity factor have moderate to low activity from the stream length gradient index. The morphotectonic analysis suggests that the Wadi Al-Batin alluvial fan has a moderate tectonic activity due to the tectonic activity of the subsurface lineaments and the oil field activities found in the region.</p> Suaad Albhadili, Inass Almallah, Saher Almulla Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation and Livestock Purposes in Sayed Al-Shuhadaa Agricultural City, Karbala, Central Iraq <p> The study investigates the anion and cation concentrations and their distribution in the Dammam aquifer to assess the groundwater suitability for irrigation and livestock in Sayed Al-Shuhadaa, Karbala, central Iraq. It lies between longitudes 43º 29' 00'' – 43<sup>º</sup> 40' 00'' E and latitudes (32<sup>º</sup> 17' 00'' – 32<sup>º</sup>22' 00'') N. The physicochemical properties, cations and anions were measured in 14 active wells distributed in the study area. The assessment was conducted based on the sodium adsorption rate (SAR), sodium percentage (Na%), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), and Hydrogen number (pH). Groundwater in the study area is very good for livestock and characterised by no damage, as the rate of sodium adsorption was good. The percentage of sodium and pH values are within the permissible values for irrigation, except for some wells that have high TDS and EC, which leads to an increase in salinity.</p> Rafal Ghassan Mahmoud, Ayser Al Shamma'a, Maithem Al-Ghanimy Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Petrophysical Properties of Mauddud Formation in Selected Wells in Al-Ahdab Oil Field, Middle Iraq <p> This paper aims to calculate the petrophysical properties in the Al-Ahdab field in the middle of Iraq within the Mauddud Formation. This study was based on the information available from well logs. The interactive petrophysical software IP (V4.5) was used to calculate the porosity, hydrocarbon saturation and shale volume, divide the formation into reservoir units and buffer units, and evaluate these units in each well. The Mauddud was divided into five units, two of them were considered good reservoirs having good petrophysical properties (high porosity, Low water saturation, and low shale volume). The other three are not reservoirs because of poor petrophysical properties.</p> Ali S. Hameed, Rasha F. Faisal Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Facies Architecture And Depositional Marine Systems of the Yamama Formation in Selected Wells, Southern Iraq <p> The Yamama Formation is characterized by a wide geographic extension of southern Iraq. Microfacies analysis of this formation was studied in six wells distributed in six fields: Fayhaa, Sindbad, Siba, Zubair, Ratawi and West Qurna. This research aims to determine paleoenvironments by diagnosing biofacies and lithofacies. Miscellaneous marine fauna of foraminifera and calcareous algae, mainly green algae (dasycladacean.) and skeletal bioclasts from gastropods, pelecypods, bryozoans, sponge spicules, and echinoderms were found. Petrographic studies and well logs interpretations led to the identification of five main Microfacies ( Mudstone, Wackestone, Packestone, Grainestone and Rudstone and twelve submicrofacies (Foraminiferal-Lime mudstone submicrofacies, Argillaceous Lime Mudstone submicrofacies, Planktonic foraminiferal – Lime Wackestone submicrofacies, piculites/ Calcisphers – Lime Wackstone submicrofacies, Benthonic Foraminiferal -Lime wackestone/packestone submicrofacies, Algal (desycladecan) Lime wackestone submicrofacies, Algal-Lime packestone submicrofacies, Bioclastic/ Algal-Lime packestone submicrofacies, Algal/ Foraminiferal- Algal -Lime packstone submicrofacies, Peloidal poorly sorted grainstone with bioclasts submicrofacies, Intraclastic grainstone submicrofacies, Pesudo oolitic-<em>Lithocodium aggregatum</em> grainstone submicrofacies and finally Peloidal-intraclastic, and bioclastic grainstone submicrofacies). Microfacies are deposited in the lagoon, shoal, rudist biostrome and open marine gradient to middle and outer ramp environments. Vertical changes in microfacies with depth were reflected by lateral changes in marine depositional systems and the thickness of the formation. Shoal environments' microfacies are characterized by high thickness, while low thickness characterizes the open marine microfacies. The Yamama Formation was deposited on the low-angle homoclinic carbonate ramp, mainly in the inner and middle ramp, with outer ramp conditions in some parts of the formation.</p> Shatha A. Mohsin, Abbas H. Mohammed, Fahad M. Alnajm Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Neutron Sources of Stellar Reactions on Fluorine Abundances <p> There are many neutron sources in the universe that play an important role in the stellar slow neutron capture (<em>s</em>-process) nucleosynthesis. Fluorine-19 is a cosmically rare isotope that is generated in a series of reactions. The aim in this paper is to perform theoretical calculations to test the variance of neutron intensity generated within stellar conditions, especially in Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, on the production of <sup>19</sup>F isotope. EMPIRE II program has been utilized with the aid of many Matlab programs, and experimental comparisons have been made with NACRE II and Reaclib libraries. The results has shown that the high abundances of reactant nuclei responsible for ultimately generating <sup>19</sup>F are consumed by neutron poisoning reactions that highly affect the final generation of <sup>19</sup>F isotope. Also, the <em>S<sub>eff</sub></em> and <em>S</em>(0) values for the reaction have been approximately calculated in the present research.</p> <p> </p> Ahmed Abdul-Razzaq Selman Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000