Impacts of Androgen Abuse and Overtraining on Endocrine Profile in Bodybuilders


  • Ekhlas Abdallah Hassan Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Diyala, Baquba, Diyala, Iraq
  • Rusul Y. Hameed Al Hikma College University, Bagdad, Iraq
  • Sabreen Ali Mezil Department of medical Instrumentation engineering, Al-Hadi University Collage ,Baghdad, Iraq



Androgens, Bodybuilders athletes, Testosterone hormones, Thyroid hormone, Follicle-stimulating hormone Luteinizing Hormone


Abuse of androgens and overtraining expose bodybuilders to multifactorial stress influences related to endocrine activity. Endocrine responses in 23 bodybuilder athletes were investigated after a strength training period, during which they were taking high doses of androgenic-anabolic steroids. Serum concentrations of TSH, T3, and T4 were unchanged significantly. Serum LH and FSH concentrations decreased dramatically (P<0.05). In addition, low mean concentration of serum testosterone was recorded, with more substantial reduction in participants of elder ages. The multiple regression model used in this analysis supported this inference. On the other hand, a positive association was observed between levels of blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride) and the outcome predictor (mean serum testosterone level). The results also suggested a negative correlation between testosterone level and each of age and HDL level. The current study shows that excessive bodybuilding exercise has an impact on the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis in top-level athletes. Also, simultaneous usage of anabolic steroids induces extreme shifts in the hypothalamic-pituitary–gonadal (HPGA) axis, which is reflected as changes in testosterone level, development of the overtraining syndrome, and adverse influences on hormonal control.


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How to Cite

Hassan, E. A. ., Hameed, R. Y. ., & Mezil, S. A. . (2021). Impacts of Androgen Abuse and Overtraining on Endocrine Profile in Bodybuilders. Iraqi Journal of Science, 62(12), 4614–4620.