Structural Reservoir Characterization of Akkas Gas Field, Western Iraq: Implications for Hydrocarbon Recovery
Akkas Field is a structural trap with a sandstone reservoir that contains proven gas condensate. The field is a faulted anticline that consists of the Ordovician Khabour Formation. The objective of this research is to use structural reservoir characterization for hydrocarbon recovery. The stratigraphic sequence of the Silurian and older strata was subjected to an uplift that developed a gentle NW-SE trending anticline. The uplifting and folding events developed micro-fractures represented by tension cracks. These microfractures, whether they are outer arc or release fractures, are parallel to the hinge line of the anticline and perpendicular to the bedding planes. The brittle sandstone layers of the reservoir are interbedded with ductile units of shale. The sandstone layers accommodate the formation of micro fractures that play a major role to increase the secondary porosity. The gas and condensate have been stored mainly through the micro fractures. Two types of drilling have been used for experimental gas production, vertical and horizontal. Horizontal drilling was parallel to both hinge line of the anticline and micro fracture surfaces that was conducted and doubled the gas production of the vertical well multiple times. However, if used the third type of drilling, directional, that is perpendicular to the hinge line and parallel to the beddings of both flanks of the anticline gas production will increase more than the horizontal drilling. The directional drilling will become perpendicular to the fracture surfaces and allow the gas and the condensate to flow into the well from all directions. Additionally, it will reduce the effect of both semi – liquid hydrocarbon condensate and vertical sediment barriers.