Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Qualities of Halabja Drinking Water


  • Othman Abdulrahman Mohammed Medical Laboratory Science Department, Halabja Technical College of Applied Sciences, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Kurdistan, Iraq



waterborne disease, microbial indicator, physico-chemical properties, drinking water quality, coliform bacteria, gastroenteritis


Water is crucial for all known forms of life without providing any calories or organic nutrients, while many people, especially in developing countries, may not be able to access pure and safe drinking water. They could lose their lives or become sick because waterborne diseases could contaminate the water, and when the chemical and/or physical properties of the water are not within the national and international standards. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate water quality of the Halabja drinking water and Sirwan river. Halabja city is located to north of Iraq, north-east of the capital Baghdad. Every week of the year 2019, apart from official holidays, water samples were collected from each of river and several areas (4-10 sections) in Halabja for the bacteriological analysis, while chemical and physical water quality was monthly checked. The results showed no detectable waterborne pathogens in all drinking water samples. Additionally, values of pH, turbidity, total dissolved substances, and electrical conductivity of the purified water samples had ranges of 7.97–8.5, 0.02-0.8 NTU, 246–362 mg/L, and 383–566 µS/cm, respectively. The treated drinking water was free of Free Residual Chlorine (FRC) and nitrite. The amounts of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate varied during the year 2019, with ranges of 48.2- 73.8, 36-141.5, and 1-5 mg/L, respectively. The values of water hardness and Ca+2 and Mg+2 concentrations ranged 132- 344, 48–89.5, and 2.2-29.2 mg/L, respectively. Based on the results, values of all the above parameters were within the Iraqi and the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards, although the value of water hardness and the concentration of Ca+2 were near the upper limits of the standards, which might cause harm to the human body.


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How to Cite

Mohammed, O. A. . (2021). Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Qualities of Halabja Drinking Water. Iraqi Journal of Science, 62(11), 3816–3826.