Analysis of Climate Parameters as Indicators of Climate Changes in Central and Eastern Iraq: Khanaqin Climate Conditions as A Case Study
The climate parameters of rainfall, and average of maximum and minimum temperature were investigated for the period of 2000-2019 in three stations in central and eastern Iraq (Baghdad, Diyala, and Kut provinces). Evidence of climate change was noticed from the results, reflected by decreased mean values of annual rainfall with increased mean of maximum and minimum temperature. In addition, the water balance and the climatic conditions were determined for Khanaqin station for the years 1981-2019. The analysis of Khanaqin climate parameters demonstrated total annual mean values of rainfall of 260.86mm and evaporation of 3119.59mm. The mean monthly relative humidity was 46.65%, sunshine was 8.39h/day, temperature was 23.36Co and wind speed was 1.86m/sec. Water surplus was recorded in Khanaqin area, with values of (24.00mm) (34.18mm) (40.31mm) (28.83mm) and (19.92mm) in November, December, January, February and March respectively. The climate classification of Khanaqin area indicated semi dry and dry climates. Moreover, the region has water deficit that reached up to 43.56 % of the total rainfall values.