Bioherbicidal Potential of Eucalyptus and Clove Oil and their Combinations on Four Weedy Species
Essential oils of eucalyptus leaves and clove buds were isolated and tested for their bioherbicidal potential on different annual weed species. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry analysis (GC-MS) identified thirteen compounds representing around 87.11% of the total isolated eucalyptus oil. The main constituent was 1,8-cineole, which accounted for 68.15% of the total identified compounds. As for clove oil, eleven compounds were identified, representing 90.03% of the total compounds. Eugenol was the dominant compound and accounted for 73.89%. The bioherbicidal efficacy of the two oils and their combinations by three concentrations (2.5, 5, and 10%) were tested on four weedy species, namely Chenopodium album, Raphanus raphanistrum, Melilotus indicus, and Sisymbrium irio. The isolated oils significantly affected the dry weight and inhibited the seedling growth of the four weedy species. Using the two essential oils, individually or within their combinations, showed the highest bioherbicidal efficacy against the targeted weeds in comparison with the synthetic herbicide. In addition, utilization of the two essential oils as natural bioherbicides caused an electrolyte leakage as a result of membrane disruption and loss of integrity of weed seedling tissues. The results showed the possibility of using eucalyptus and clove essential oils individually or in combination as a desirable alternative to synthetic herbicides for sustainable weed management.