Automated Deception Detection Systems, a Review
Humans use deception daily since it can significantly affect their life and provide a getaway solution for any undesired situation. Deception is either related to low-stakes (e.g. innocuous) or high-stakes (e.g. with harmful situations). Deception investigation importance has increased, and it became a critical issue over the years with the increase of security levels around the globe. Technology has made remarkable achievements in many human life fields, including deception detection. Automated deception detection systems (DDSs) are widely used in different fields, especially for security purposes. The DDS is comprised of multiple stages, each of which should be built/trained to perform intelligently so that the whole system can give the right decision of whether the involved person is telling the truth or not. Thus, different artificial intelligent (AI) algorithms have been utilized by the researchers over the past years. In addition, there are different cues for DDS that have been considered for the previous works, which are either related to verbal or non-verbal cues. This paper presents a review on the basic methods and the used deception detection techniques for the recent 10 years, that were studied and performed in the field of DDS, with a comparison of the deception detection accuracy reached and the number of participants used for system training.