Image Watermarking Based on IWT and Parity Bit Checking
Various document types play an influential role in a lot of our lives activities today; hence preserving their integrity is an important matter. Such documents have various forms, including texts, videos, sounds, and images. The latter types' authentication will be our concern here in this paper. Images can be handled spatially by doing the proper modification directly on their pixel values or spectrally through conducting some adjustments to some of the addressed coefficients. Due to spectral (frequency) domain flexibility in handling data, the domain coefficients are utilized for the watermark embedding purpose. The integer wavelet transform (IWT), which is a wavelet transform based on the lifting scheme, is adopted in this paper in order to provide a direct way for converting image pixels' integer values to integer coefficient values rather than floating point coefficients that could be produced by the traditional wavelet transform. This direct relation can enhance the processed image quality due to avoiding the rounding operations on the floating point coefficients. The well-known parity bit approach is also utilized in this paper as an authentication mechanism, where 3 secret parity bits are used for each block in an image which is divided into non-overlapped blocks in order to enforce a form of fragile watermark approach. Thus, any alteration in the block pixels could cause the adopted (even) parity to be violated. The fragile watermarking is achieved through the modification of least significant bits ((LSBs) of certain frequency coefficients' according to the even parity condition. In spite of this image watermarking operation, the proposed method is efficient. In order to prove the efficiency of our proposed method, it was tested against standard images using measurements like peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index (SSIM). Experiments showed promising results; the method preserves high image quality (PSNR≈ 44.4367dB, SSIM≈ 0.9956) and good tamper detection capability.